Archaeology in B.C.
British Columbia's heritage includes archaeological sites - the physical evidence of how and where people lived in the past.
Last updated: December 18, 2020
On this page:
- Inquire about contraventions, finds, or properties
- Access resources
- Learn about permits and studies
For most of the time that people have lived in B.C., no written records were made. Archaeological sites and oral tradition are the only vestiges of a rich history, and protecting and conserving this fragile legacy and non-renewable natural resource is valuable to First Nations, local communities and the general public. Archaeological sites in B.C. may also be of regional, provincial, national or international significance, and may be as much as 14,000 years old.
There are over 50,000 known archaeological sites in B.C. including ancient stone carvings, remains of ancient houses and campsites, shell middens, and culturally modified trees. The scientific, cultural, and historical study of the physical remains of past human activity is essential to understanding and appreciating cultural development in B.C., and the Provincial Government recognizes the importance of archaeological sites through the Heritage Conservation Act.
Under this Act, the Archaeology Branch is responsible for maintaining and distributing archaeological information, and deciding if permits can be issued to allow development to take place within protected sites.
Archaeological sites on both public and private land are protected under the Heritage Conservation Act and must not be altered without a permit.
Report a possible contravention
Archaeological sites on both public and private land are protected under the Heritage Conservation Act (HCA), whether they are known or not, and must not be altered without a permit. If you are concerned the HCA is being, or may have been violated, you can Report a Contravention to the branch.
Report finding an archaeological artifact or human remains
Every year in B.C. archaeological artifacts and sites are discovered by people out hiking, digging in their garden, doing home renovations, developing property, or working on the land base. Learn more about how to report an archaeological find.
Request archaeological information about a property
Archaeological data and site records about properties are available in certain situations to specific individuals or groups. Learn if you qualify, and how to request access to archaeological data and site records.
Archaeological resource management professionals and professional consulting archaeologists help ensure sites are protected and managed for their historical, cultural, scientific and educational value to the public, communities and First Nations. Access resource management tools and resources for archaeology professionals.
Crown land and natural resource users
Companies and individuals engaged in natural resource extraction must take steps to identify protected archaeological sites that will be directly or indirectly disturbed by operational activities. Learn how to manage and mitigate impacts to archaeological sites.
First Nations help protect archaeological sites by contributing traditional knowledge and values. Access archaeological resource management tools and resources for First Nations.
By integrating archaeological resource management into planning and development approval processes, municipalities and regional districts and local government partners play a role in the preservation of B.C.'s past. Learn what role local governments and their partners play in the preservation of B.C.'s past.
Private, commercial or development properties
Property owners and developers can request archaeological site information and, if necessary, engage a professional archaeologist before developing on private or commercial property. Learn about how to request archaeological site information, apply for permits, or engage a professional consulting archaeologist.
All archaeological sites in B.C. are protected under the Heritage Conservation Act. This applies whether sites are located on public or private land, and whether the site is known or unknown. Protected archaeological sites may not be altered or changed in any manner without a permit. Learn about the different types of archaeological permits and how to apply for them.
Archaeological assessments and studies
Archaeological assessments and studies help determine what impact proposed projects will have on known or unknown archaeological sites. Learn about archaeological overview assessments and archaeological impact assessments.