Turnips

Turnips

Growing Turnips

Swedes (Rutabagas)

Laurentian, American Purple Top (Trial).

Turnips

Purple Top White Globe, Fuku Komachi (All white).

See your seed dealer for the most recent variety recommendations.

Use seed treated with Thiram seed protectant. The use of hot-water-treated seed is a precaution against blackleg and black rot.
 
For control of Pythium damping off, use seed treated with Apron XL LS seed protectant.    For control of damping off and seedling blight caused by Pythium spp., Fusarium spp. and Rhizoctonia spp., use seed treated with Apron MAXX RTA.  

For summer harvest, sow as early in the spring as possible. For later harvests sow up to the 7th of June. Seed 375 to 560 g/ha (150 to 225 g/acre) of seed at a depth of 1.5 to 2.5 cm. Space rows 60 cm apart and plants within the row 15 cm apart.

A soil test is necessary to determine phosphate and potash requirements. Use the Vegetable Production Guide: Nutrient Management (PDF) for recommendations based on soil test results.

Manure

Apply the year before and not in the year of seeding.

Fertilizer

Broadcast and disc in 45 kg/ha (18 kg/acre) nitrogen and the required phosphate and potash. Boron at 4.5 kg/ha (1.8 kg/acre) should be added to the fertilizer mix. If further boron is required, use Solubor at 0.5 to 1.1 kg/ha (0.2 to 0.45 kg/acre) when turnips are 2.5 cm in diameter (see Brown Heart, below).

Turnips should be stored at a temperature of 0°C and a relative humidity of 90 – 95%.

Handling roots with care during harvest reduces injury and rots during storage. Store only healthy roots in clean tote-bins or pile no more than 2 m deep in bulk, ensuring there is good air circulation. Wash and trim before shipping. Waxing improves appearance and shelf-life.

 

Turnip Weed Management

Pre-plant Incorporation: Herbicide Application Rates

Product Rate PHI* Comments

Bonanza 480

(trifluralin)

Group 3

1.7 to 2.3 L/ha
(700 to 900 mL/acre)

Apply in at least 100 L/ha (40 L/acre) water at 275 kPa
N/A
  • Registered on rutabagas only.
  • Not registered on turnip.
  • Rates vary with soil types, see label for detail.
  • Control seedling annuals but not shepherd’s-purse, groundsel, cudweed or the mustards.
  • Apply from 3 weeks before seeding and incorporate within 24 hours to a depth of 8 to 10 cm. Cross-discing is recommended.
  • Seeding may begin immediately after incorporation.
  • Not effective on organic soils with more than 15% organic matter or soils with less than 2% organic matter.
  • Effectiveness is reduced in cold, wet soils.
  • If manure is spread prior to application ensure it has been thoroughly mixed into soil with at least 2 tillage operations prior to application.
  • Do not apply on sandy or sandy loam soils.
  • Do not enter treated area for 12 hours.

Eptam 8-E

(EPTC)

Group 8

3.25 to 4.25 L/ha
(1.3 to 1.7 L/acre)
N/A
  • Registered on rutabaga and turnip.
  • Use the lower rate on sandy soil, the higher rate on heavier mineral soils.
  • Apply 6 to 10 days before planting and incorporate to 5 to 7.5 cm using power driven rotary cultivator set at 5 to 7.5 cm or cross-disc set at 7.5 to 10 cm.
  • Treatment will control seedling grasses and only suppress some broadleaf weeds.
  • Results at these rates will probably be poor in northern BC and on heavy mineral soils.
  • Use on mineral soils only.
  • Do not enter treated area for 24 hours.

Devrinol 50 DF

(napropamide)

Group 15

2.2 to 4.4 kg/ha
(0.9 to 1.8 kg/acre)

Apply in 200 to 900 L/ha (80 to 365 L/acre) water

60
  • Registered on rutabagas only.
  • Not registered on turnip.
  • Apply once per season.
  • Controls a range of annual grasses and broadleaved weeds.
  • Shepherd’s-purse and lady’s-thumb may escape treatment.
  • Do not apply to soils with more than 10% organic matter.
  • Do not plant crops not listed on the label for 12 months after the last application.
  • Do not enter treated area for 12 hours.

Devrinol 2-XT

(napropamide)

Group 15

4.58 to 9.17 L/ha
(1.85 to 3.71 L/acre)

Apply in 200 to 900 L/ha (80 to 365 L/acre) water

60
  • Registered on rutabagas only.
  • Not registered on turnip.
  • Apply once per season.
  • Controls a range of annual grasses and broadleaved weeds.
  • Shepherd’s-purse and lady’s-thumb may escape treatment.
  • Do not apply to soils with more than 10% organic matter.
  • Do not plant crops not listed on the label for 12 months after the last application.
  • Do not enter treated area for 12 hours.

*PHI = Pre-harvest interval
BUFFERS – Refer to product label for buffer requirements, and consult the Vegetable Production Guide: Pesticide Regulations and Safety (PDF).
PESTICIDE GROUP DETAILS – see the Vegetable Production Guide: Pesticide Toxicity Table (PDF).

Post-emergence: Herbicide Application Rates

Product Rate PHI* Comments

Venture L

(fluazifop-P-butyl & S-isomer)

Group 1

. barnyard grass (2-5 leaf stage):
0.8 L/ha (0.32 L/acre)

proso millet (2-5 leaf):
1.0 L/ha (0.4 L/acre)

foxtails (2-4 leaf):
1.4 L/ha (0.56 L/acre)

quackgrass (3-5 leaf):
2.0 L/ha (0.8 L/acre)
45
  • Registered on rutabaga only.
  • Not registered on turnip.
  • Annual bluegrass and broadleaved weeds are not controlled.
  • Do not apply more than once per season.
  • Apply in 50 to 200 L/ha (20 to 80 L/acre) water at 200 to 300 kPa.
  • Apply using 425 kPa pressure for dense weed infestations or dense crop canopies.
  • Warning: Women capable of bearing children should avoid exposure to Venture.
  • Do not handle more than 50 kg a.i. (400 L product) per day.
  • Use a closed cab when applying more than 33 kg a.i. (264 L product) per day.
  • Observe a plantback interval of 12 months for crops not listed.
  • Do not re-enter treated area for 12 hours.

Poast Ultra

(sethoxydim)

Group 1

Annual grasses (incl. volunteer cereals):

320 mL/ha (130 mL/ac)

 

Annual grasses & quackgrass suppression:

470 mL/ha (190 mL/ac)

 

Quackgrass:

1.1 L/ha (445 mL/ac)
77
  • Registered on turnip only.
  • Not registered on rutabaga.
  • For control of annual grasses and quackgrass suppression, add Merge adjuvant using a rate of 0.5 - 1.0 L/ha (0.2 - 0.4 L/ac).
  • For control of quackgrass, add Merge adjuvant using a rate of 1.0 - 2.0 L/ha (0.4 - 0.8 L/ac).
  • Annual bluegrass is not controlled.
  • Apply when annual weeds are in the 1 to 6 leaf stage and when quackgrass is in the 1 to 3 leaf stage.
  • Apply in 50 to 200 L/ha (20 to 80 L/acre) of water at 240 kPa pressure..
  •  See label for water volume and pressure when weed infestations or crop canopies are dense.
  • Observe a 30 day plantback interval for crops not listed.
  • Do not enter treated area for 12 hours.

Lontrel XC

(clopyralid)

Group 4

0.25 to 0.34 L/ha (100 to 140 mL/ac)

Apply in 200 to 300 L/ha (80 to 120 L/ac) of water at 200 to 275 kPa

Rutabaga: 83

Turnip (roots): 30

Turnip (greens):  15
  • Use the rate range for turnip.
  • Use the high rate for rutabaga.
  • Apply only once per season.
  • Low rate controls Canada thistle (top growth), vetch and alsike clover.
  • High rate controls Canada thistle, scentless chamomile, wild buckwheat, perennial sow thistle (top growth), common groundsel.
  • High rate provides suppression only for sheep sorrel.
  • Apply when annual weeds are young and actively growing.
  • Treat Canada thistle before the purple bud stage.
  • Residues of Lontrel can remain in the soil the following year of use, thereby affecting growth of sensitive crops.  See label for Sensitive Crops section.
  • Do not enter treated area for 12 hours.

Lontrel 360

(clopyralid)

Group 4

Note:  no longer produced

0.42 to 0.56 L/ha (170 to 225 mL/ac)

Apply in 200 to 300 L/ha (80 to 120 L/ac) of water at 200 to 275 kPa

Rutabaga: 83

Turnip (roots): 30

Turnip (greens):  15
  • Use the rate range for turnip.
  • Use the high rate for rutabaga.
  • Apply only once per season.
  • Low rate controls Canada thistle (top growth), vetch and alsike clover.
  • High rate controls Canada thistle, scentless chamomile, wild buckwheat, perennial sow thistle (top growth), common groundsel.
  • High rate provides suppression only for sheep sorrel.
  • Apply when annual weeds are young and actively growing.
  • Treat Canada thistle before the purple bud stage.
  • Residues of Lontrel can remain in the soil the following year of use, thereby affecting growth of sensitive crops.  See label for Sensitive Crops section.
  • Do not enter treated area for 12 hours.

Aim EC

(carfentrazone-ethyl)

Group 14

37 to 117 mL/ha
(15 to 47 mL/acre)

Apply in 100 L/ha (40 L/acre) of water
1
  • Registered on rutabaga and turnip.
  • Controls annual weeds.
  • Must be applied using hooded sprayers to weeds between the rows of the emerged crop.
  •  Use an adjuvant such as Agral 90 or Agral-Surf at 0.25% v/v (0.25 L/100 L of spray solution) or Merge at 1% v/v (1 L/100 L of spray solution).
  • Precaution:  crop injury will occur when spray drift is allowed to come in contact with green stem tissue or leaves.
  • Apply only once per growing season.

*PHI = Pre-harvest interval
BUFFERS – Refer to product label for buffer requirements, and consult the Vegetable Production Guide: Pesticide Regulations and Safety (PDF).
PESTICIDE GROUP DETAILS – see the Vegetable Production Guide: Pesticide Toxicity Table (PDF).

 

Turnip Insect Management

 

Aphids are small, soft-bodied, slow-moving, sucking insects usually found in clusters on growing tips or undersides of leaves. Their feeding causes distortion and yellowing of leaves and build-up of a sticky substance called “honeydew” which hosts sooty mould.

Control

The Lorsban drenches applied for root maggots should give effective control of aphids. No additional control should be necessary.

Chemical Control of Aphids

Product Rate PHI* Comments

Admire 240 F

(imidacloprid)
 
Group 4
In-furrow soil application:
7.5 to 12 mL/100 m row
 
(see Rate Conversion Chart of label for row spacing calculations)
 
Apply in 200 L/ha (80 L/acre) of water

21

 

 

 

 

  • Registered on rutabaga and turnip.
  • Apply just prior to or during egg hatch.
  • Do not follow with any subsequent applications of a group 4 insecticide.
  • Do not apply more than 1700 mL/ha (690 mL/acre) as a soil application.
  • Crops grown on muck soils may require additional pest management control.

 

Admire 240 F

(imidacloprid)
 
Group 4
Foliar application:
200 mL/ha
80 mL/acre
7
  • Registered on rutabaga and turnip.
  • Repeat using a 5 day interval.
  • Do not apply more than twice per crop season.
  • Do not apply following a soil, in-furrow or seed treatment application of a group 4 insecticide.
  • Toxic to bees.  Do apply if bees are visiting the treatment area.
  • Do not re-enter treated area for 24 hours.

Beleaf 50 SG

(flonicamid)

Group 9C
120 to 160 g/ha
(50 to 65 g/acre)

Apply in 94 L/ha (38L/acre) of water
3
  • Registered on rutabaga and turnip.
  • Repeat at 7 day intervals.
  • Do not apply more than 3 times per year.
  • Do not apply more than 480 g/ha (200 g/acre) of product per season.
  • Do not re-enter treated area for 12 hours.

Bartlett Superior “70” Oil

(mineral oil)

10 L/ha (4.0 L/acre)

Apply in 550 to 1100 L/ha (222 to 445 L/acre) of water at 2500 kPa

21
  • Registered on rutabaga only.
  • Not registered on turnips.
  • Will reduce of aphid spread turnip mosaic virus.
  • Thorough coverage is essential.
  • Repeat at a 7 day interval.
  • Crop injury may occur if applied in direct sunlight or immediately prior to hot, sunny weather.
  • Apply in early morning or evening.
  • Do not apply another insecticide within 24 hours.
  • Carefully observe rate or crop injury may occur.
  • Do not apply prior to or during freezing weather or rain.
  • Do not enter treated area for 24 hours.

Superior “70” Oil

(mineral oil)

11 L/ha (4.5 L/acre)

Apply in 550 to 1100 L/ha (222 to 445 L/acre) of water at 2500 kPa

21
  • Registered on rutabaga only.
  • Not registered on turnips.
  • Apply in 550 to 1100 L/ha (222 to 445 L/acre) of water at 2500 kPa.
  • Will reduce of aphid spread turnip mosaic virus.
  • Thorough coverage is essential.
  • Repeat at a 7 day interval.
  • Crop injury may occur if applied in direct sunlight or immediately prior to hot, sunny weather.
  • Apply in early morning or evening.
  • Do not apply another insecticide within 24 hours.
  • Carefully observe rate or crop injury may occur.
  • Do not apply prior to or during freezing weather or rain.
  • Do not enter treated area for 24 hours.

*PHI = Pre-harvest interval
BUFFERS – Refer to product label for buffer requirements, and consult the Vegetable Production Guide: Pesticide Regulations and Safety (PDF).
PESTICIDE GROUP DETAILS – see the Vegetable Production Guide: Pesticide Toxicity Table (PDF).

These red and black beetles are a pest in central British Columbia and Peace River areas. The dark-brown immature larvae eat foliage.

Control

This pest will be controlled if a regular root maggot control program is followed.

The adult is a gray fly, half the size of a housefly, which lays eggs at the base of the plant throughout the season. Legless white maggots hatch and tunnel roots, making turnips unmarketable.

Control

See table below.

Note: Root maggot resistance to chlorpyrifos (Lorsban) has been reported in the Lower Mainland and Vancouver Island. Use these products with caution.

Contact us to see if products are registered. Row cover, using insect netting fabric such as Wondermesh, has been found to provide good control of the cabbage root maggot fly.

Root Maggot Granular Treatment

Product Rate PHI* Comments

Lorsban 15G

(chloropyrifos)

Group 1B
0.6 to 1.0 kg/1,000 m of row 30
  • Registered on rutabaga only.
  • Not registered on turnips.
  • Apply as an in furrow treatment at planting.
  • When precision seeding, the material should be applied ahead of the seeding shoe so that the bow wave effect will distribute the granular material throughout the row.
  • Do not enter treated area for 24 hours.
  • Do not make more than one application per season.

.

Root Maggot Drench Treatment

Product Rate PHI* Comments

Lorsban 4E / Lorsban NT /

Nufos 4E/ Pyrinex 480 EC

(chloropyrifos)

210 mL in 125 L of water per 1000 m of row

30
  • Registered  on rutabaga only.
  • Not registered on turnips.
  • If a granular chlorpyrifos treatment has been used, do not apply more than 3 times per season.
  • In addition to the granular treatment, at 28 days, 49 days and again at 70 days after seeding, drench with one of these products.
  • If no granular chlorpyrifos treatment has been used, do not apply more than 4 times per season.
  • Note: If a granular treatment is not used, the first drench should be applied 10 days after seeding and then followed up with the 28, 49 and 70 day drenches while observing the 30 days to harvest restriction.
  • Do no re-enter treated area for 24 hours.
Row spacing
60 cm (24 in.)
75 cm (30 in.)
90 cm (36 in.)
Lorsban rate
3.5 L/ha (1.4 L/acre)
2.8 L/ha (1.1 L/acre)
2.3 L/ha (0.9 L/acre)
  Water Volume
1670 L/ha (675 L/acre)
1330 L/ha (535 L/acre)
1110 L/ha (450 L/acre)

 

Cabbage Root Maggot Adult Fly Suppression

Product Rate PHI* Comments

Mako

(cypermethrin)

Group 3

123 mL/ha (50 mL/acre)

Apply in 100 to 500 L/ha (40 to 200 L/acre) of water

21
  • Registered on rutabaga and turnip.
  • Note:  this treatment is not meant for use as a drench or as a replacement for routine Lorsban 4E drenches.
  • Apply as a foliar spray to suppress adult flies.
  • Observe a 7 day interval between applications. 
  • Do not apply more than 3 times per crop per year.
  • Timing of applications should be based on presence of adult flies as determined by local monitoring with yellow sticky traps.
  • Mako should be applied midway between Lorsban 4E or Pyrinex 480 EC drenches if monitoring indicates presence of flies.
  • Do not enter treated area for 12 hours.

*PHI = Pre-harvest interval
BUFFERS – Refer to product label for buffer requirements, and consult the Vegetable Production Guide: Pesticide Regulations and Safety (PDF).
PESTICIDE GROUP DETAILS – see the Vegetable Production Guide: Pesticide Toxicity Table (PDF).

 

Turnip Disease Management

Brown heart first appears as a water-soaked area in the centre of the turnip root which later turns brown. The plant may not be receiving enough boron.

Control

In light, sandy soils or where boron deficiency has occurred in the past, include 4.5 kg/ha (1.8 kg/acre) boron in the fertilizer mix. Review the "Boron" section of the Vegetable Production Guide: Nutrient Management (PDF) for more information.

All rutabagas should receive Solubor at 500 to 1000 g/ha (200 to 400 g/acre) as a spray using 500 L/ha (200 L/acre) or more of water to the foliage once or twice when the roots are sizing up.

In the Interior, fields to which boron has been applied should not normally be planted to beans or cucumbers the following year as both these crops are extremely sensitive to boron.

The soil-borne fungus, Rhizoctonia, attacks many crop plants in different ways. In the case of rutabagas, the infection begins as a small lesion on the side of the tap root often at a point of injury caused by a wireworm or other insect. The infected area enlarges slowly causing a sunken dry rot. The rot continues in storage eventually destroying the entire root.

Control

  • Avoid poorly-drained fields or fields with a history of crater rot.
  • Control insects and take care not to injure the roots mechanically while they are growing.
  • Rotate with grass or cereal green manure crops.

Chemical Control of Rhizoctonia Crater Rot

Product Rate PHI* Comments

Quadris

(Azoxystrobin)

Group 11

4 to 6 mL of product per 100m of row

Apply in 50 to 100 L/ha (20 to 40 L/acre) of water
40
  • Registered on rutabaga and turnip.
  • Apply either in-furrow at seeding or as a banded application over the row soon after emergence or within 30 days of emergence.
  • Do not make more than one application per year.
  • A plant back interval of 30 days is required for broadleaf and root crops.
  • A plant back interval of 45 days is required for cereals.
  • Do not enter treated area until residues have dried.

Serenade Soil

(QST 713 strain of dried Bacillus subtilis)
 
Used in organics.

 

2.7 to 14 L/ha (1.1 to 5.7 L/acre) 0
  • Registered on rutabaga and turnip.
  • Serenade Soil (PCP# 30647) is OMRI-Canada listed.  Check with your certification body before using in an organic operation.
  • Suppression only.

Surface Application:

  • Apply as a 15 cm band over the top of the seed row as a broadcast spray after planting.
  • Ensure incorporation into the seed zone within 24 hours of application via rainfall or overhead irrigation.

Post-plant applications:

  • After crop germination, additional applications may be made to the soil as a drench or spray directed towards the base of the plant.
  • Irrigate to move material into the seed or root zone.
  • Repeat at 21 to 28 day intervals.

*PHI = Pre-harvest interval
BUFFERS – Refer to product label for buffer requirements, and consult the Vegetable Production Guide: Pesticide Regulations and Safety (PDF).
PESTICIDE GROUP DETAILS – see the Vegetable Production Guide: Pesticide Toxicity Table (PDF).

OMRI-Canada = Organic Materials Review Institute of Canada

Powdery mildew begins as white, powdery patches on the upper leaf surface. Later the leaves turn yellow and fall off, reducing yield.

Control

  • Rotation out of cruciferous crops and control of cruciferous weeds will reduce carryover from year to year.
  • In rare instances a spray program may be warranted. See table below.

Chemical Control of Powdery Mildew

Product Rate PHI* Comments

Tilt 250E

(propiconazole)

Group 3

400 mL/ha (160 mL/acre)

 

Apply in 200 L/ha (80 L/ac) of water
21
  • Registered on rutabagas only.
  • Not registered on turnips.
  • Suppression only.
  • Apply as a foliar spray.
  • Make the first application 50 days after planting.
  • Repeat using a 20 day interval.
  • Do not apply more than 2 times per season.
  • Do not re-enter treated area for 12 hours.

Mission 418EC

(propiconazole)

Group 3

240 mL/ha
(97 mL/acre)

Apply in 200 L/ha (81 L/acre) of water

21
  • Registered on rutabaga only.
  • Not registered on turnips.
  • Make two applications per season with the 1st application at 50 days after planting and the 2nd application 20 days later.
  • Apply to vegetative foliage.
  • Do not graze livestock on treated green tops.

Jade

(propriconazole)

Group 3

400 mL/ha
(160 mL/acre)

Apply in 200 L/ha (81 L/acre) of water

21
  • Registered on rutabaga only.
  • Not registered on turnips.
  • Make two applications per season with the 1st application at 50 days after planting and the 2nd application 20 days later.
  • Apply to vegetative foliage.
  • Do not graze livestock on treated green tops.

Cabrio EG

(pyraclostrobin)

Group 11

560 to 840 g/ha
(220 to 340 g/acre)

Apply in at least 225 L/ha (90 L/acre) of water
3
  • Registered on rutabaga and turnip.
  • Repeat using 7 day intervals.
  • Do not apply more than 3 times per season.  
  • No more than 2 consecutive applications before alternating to a fungicide with a different mode of action.
  • Do not re-enter for hand-harvesting for 3 days and for all other activities, do not re-enter for 12 hours.
  • Do not use treated crops for feed.

*PHI = Pre-harvest interval
BUFFERS – Refer to product label for buffer requirements, and consult the Vegetable Production Guide: Pesticide Regulations and Safety (PDF).
PESTICIDE GROUP DETAILS – see the Vegetable Production Guide: Pesticide Toxicity Table (PDF).

Brown lesions, up to 1 cm in diameter, appear on the root, often forming continuous rings around the tap root near the soil line.

Control

  • Avoid soils with a history of potato scab.
  • Rotate with grass or cereal green manure crops.
  • The disease occurs most commonly in dry soils. Frequent, light irrigation will reduce infection but care must be taken not to encourage excessive growth which can result in oversized and cracked roots.