Parsnips

Parnsips

Growing Parsnips

Gladiator, Arrow, Javelin, Albion.

See your seed dealer for the most recent variety recommendations.

For control of damping off and seedling blight caused by Pythium spp., Fusarium spp. and Rhizoctonia spp., use seed treated with Apron MAXX RTA.

Sow seed as early in the spring as possible at a rate of 3.25 to 5.5 kg/ha (1.3 to 2.2 kg/acre), to a depth of 6 to 19 mm. Space plants within the row 5 to 10 cm apart and space rows at least 45 cm apart.

 

Deep, loose fertile soils that have good water-holding capacity and a pH of 6.0 or above are necessary for the development of long, straight roots. Well-drained sandy loams, peat and mucks are ideal for parsnip production.

A soil test is necessary to determine phosphate and potash requirements. Use the Vegetable Production Guide: Nutrient Management (PDF) for recommendations based on soil test results. Broadcast and disc at time of planting 60 kg/ha (24 kg/acre) nitrogen and the required phosphate and potash.

Side-dress with 35 kg/ha (14 kg/acre) of nitrogen about 6 weeks after seeding.

 

 

Parsnip Weed Management

Pre-emergence: Herbicide Application Rates
Product Rate PHI* Comments

Lorox L

(linuron)

Group 7
Loam or clay soils with low organic matter:
1.3 to 1.9 L/ha
(520 to 760 mL/acre)

Muck or clay soils with med. organic matter:
1.9 to 2.5 L/ha
(0.76 to 1.0 L/acre)
60
  • Plant seeds at least 1.3 cm deep.
  • Do not apply more than 1.9 L/ha if following with a post-emergence application of Lorox L. Check label for pre-emergence plus post-emergence directions.
  • Do not use on sandy or coarse-textured soils low in organic matter.
  • Rain or irrigation is needed for good control.

Dual II Magnum

(S - metolachlor)

Group 15
Mineral soils:
1.2 to 1.5 L/ ha
(500 mL to 600 mL/ acre)
 
Muck soils (>20% OM):
1.5 to 1.75 L/ ha
(600 to 708 mL/ acre)
 
Apply in 150 to 300 L/ha (60 to 120 L/acre) of water at 200 to 300 kPa
60
  • Apply after planting prior to emergence of crop and weeds.
  • For mineral soils, controls nightshade, foxtail and barnyard grass and suppresses redroot pigweed.
  • For muck soils, suppression only of listed weeds.
  • On muck soils, irrigate immediately after appplying with 0.5 inches of water.
  • Use in soils with high organic matter may result in reduced efficacy.
  • Make only one application per year.
  • Do not follow with a post-emergent spray of Dual II Magnum later in the season (see Post-emergence section of this table).
  • Pre-emerge treatment sometimes gives better control of nightshade than post-emerge treatment.
  • Do not apply in areas where water is likely to pool.
  • May cause significant injury to carrots resuting in stand loss, delayed maturity and reduced yields.
  • Rain is required within 10 days of application, or a shallow cultivation.
  • Do not apply to soils with less than 1% organic matter.
  • Do not re-enter for 12 hours.

*PHI = Pre-harvest interval
BUFFERS – Refer to product label for buffer requirements, and consult the Vegetable Production Guide: Pesticide Regulations and Safety (PDF).
PESTICIDE GROUP DETAILS – see the Vegetable Production Guide: Pesticide Toxicity Table (PDF).

Post-emergence: Herbicide Application Rates
Product Rate PHI* Comments

Select

(clethodim)
 
Group 1

0.19 to 0.38 L/ha (75 to 155 mL/acre)

Apply in 110 L/ha (45 L/acre) of water at 275 kPa

30
  • Apply post-emergence of weeds and crop.
  • Controls annual grasses and suppresses quackgrass at the 2 to 6 leaf stage.
  • Use only with the adjuvant Amigo at 0.5 to 1.0% v/v.
  • Apply early, prior to tillering.
  • Repeat using a 14 day interval.
  • Maximum of 2 applications per year.
  • Do not apply more than 0.38 L/ha (155 mL/acre) per crop season.
  • Allow 4 days after treatment before applying any other chemical not listed on the label.
  • Do not enter treated area for 12 hours.

Centurion

(clethodim)
 
Group 1

0.19 to 0.38 L/ha (75 to 155 mL/acre)

Apply in 110 L/ha (45 L/acre) of water at 275 kPa

30
  • Apply post-emergence of weeds and crop.
  • Controls annual grasses and suppresses quackgrass at the 2 to 6 leaf stage.
  • Use only with the adjuvant Amigo at 0.5 to 1.0% v/v.
  • Apply early, prior to tillering.
  • Repeat using a 14 day interval.
  • Maximum of 2 applications per year.
  • Do not apply more than 0.38 L/ha (155 mL/acre) per crop season.
  • Allow 4 days after treatment before applying any other chemical not listed on the label.
  • Do not enter treated area for 12 hours.

Guardsman/ Agricultural Weedkiller No. 1

(mineral spirits)
Whole field treatment:
600 to 800 L/ha
(243 to 324 L/acre)

Row treatment:
300 to 400 L/ha
(121 to 162 L/acre)
30
  • Apply when plants are in 2 to 4 leaf stage and before weeds are 10 cm high.
  • Controls annual grasses, redroot pigweed, lamb’s quarter and purslane.
  • Pineappleweed and wormseed mustard are not controlled consistently.
  • Crop damage may result if sprays are applied in hot, dry weather or when plants are wet with rain or dew.
  • Note: Other solvents may cause crop damage.

Lorox L

(linuron)

Group 7
1.9 to 4.7 L/ha
(0.7 to 1.9 L/acre)

Apply in 220 to 440 L/ha (90 to 175 L/acre) of water at 275 kPa
60
  • Rate is for parsnips not treated pre-emergence.
  • Apply when crop has 2 or more fully developed leaves.
  • On muck soils, plants must be more than 8 cm tall when spraying.
  • Apply before annual grasses are 5 cm tall and before broadleaved weeds reach 15 cm.
  • Will not control atrazine resistant weeds.
  • Do not tank mix with herbicide oil or surfactants.
  • Do not use on sandy soils with less than 2% organic matter.
  • Do not replant to other crops within 4 months of last application.

Aim EC

(carfentrazone-ethyl)
Group 14
37 to 117 mL/ha
(15 to 47 mL/acre)

Apply in 100 L/ha (40 L/acre) of water
1
  • Controls annual weeds.
  • Must be applied using hooded sprayers to weeds between the rows of the emerged crop.
  •  Use an adjuvant such as Agral 90 or Agral-Surf at 0.25% v/v (0.25 L/100 L of spray solution) or Merge at 1% v/v (1 L/100 L of spray solution).
  • Precaution:  crop injury will occur when spray drift is allowed to come in contact with green stem tissue or leaves.
  • Apply only once per growing season.

Dual II Magnum

(S - metolachlor)

Group 15
Mineral soils:
1.2 to 1.5 L/ ha
(500 mL to 600 mL/ acre)
 
Apply in 150 to 300 L/ha (60 to 120 L/acre) of water at 200 to 300 kPa
60
  • Apply when the crop is at the 3 to 5 leaf stage and to weeds prior to the 2-leaf stage.
  • Controls nightshade, foxtail and barnyard grass.
  • Make only one application per year.
  • Do not follow with a post-emergent spray of Dual II Magnum later in the season (see Post-emergence section of this table).
  • Pre-emergent treatments sometimes gives better control of nightshade than post-emergent treatments.
  • Do not apply in areas where water is likely to pool.
  • May cause significant injury to carrots resulting in stand loss, delayed maturity and reduced yields.
  • Rain is required within 10 days of application, or a shallow cultivation.
  • Do not apply to soils with less than 1% or more than 10% organic matter.
  • Do not re-enter for 12 hours.

*PHI = Pre-harvest interval
BUFFERS – Refer to product label for buffer requirements, and consult the Vegetable Production Guide: Pesticide Regulations and Safety (PDF).
PESTICIDE GROUP DETAILS – see the Vegetable Production Guide: Pesticide Toxicity Table (PDF).

 

Parsnip Insect Management

This small, shiny, black fly with yellowish legs and yellow-brown head, lays eggs in soil near plants. Yellowish-white, legless maggots feed on roots of carrots, parsnips and celery, leaving rust-coloured tunnels. Young plants may be killed. Older plants may be stunted and the roots deformed.

Monitoring

Monitoring with yellow sticky traps is effective at detecting carrot rust flies early and allows for achieving control with fewer sprays. If a commercial scouting service is operating in your area, it would be advisable to subscribe to it.

If this service is not available, the following information will enable you to do your own monitoring.

Monitoring enables you to determine if and when carrot rust flies are present and allows you to adjust your spray program accordingly. If no carrot rust flies are caught on the traps, no sprays need be applied.

The traps are set in the outside beds and in each corner around the field at a rate of one per hectare. Fields smaller than one hectare should have one trap at each corner. The traps, 14 cm X 11 cm, are attached to a stake with a clip and should face north and south. The bottom of the traps should be just above the top of the plants. The first carrot rust flies usually come out of the overwintering pupae between the end of April and early May and are present until late May. Any carrots that were seeded early and are up by that time should have traps. Carrots seeded later should have traps set at the time of emergence of the crop. The next generation of flies appears from early to late June and the last generation is present from about mid-July to freeze-up.

The traps are replaced twice per week and examined for the presence of carrot rust flies. When the count reaches 0.2 carrot rust flies per trap per day (about one fly/trap per week), there are enough of them out in the field to cause damage to the crop. Sprays to control them must be applied within three days to avoid losses at harvest. Growers who want to do their own monitoring can Contact US for further details.

Suppression

Purchase seed treated with Sepresto 75 WS (clothianidin/imidacloprid). 

Note:  Toxic to bees.  Bees may be exposed to Sepresto 75 WS residues in flowers, leaves, pollen and/or nectar resulting from seed treatment applications.

Control

The suggested spray schedule in the table below need only be followed if the field is not monitored for carrot rust flies. Monitoring can eliminate or substantially reduce the number of sprays per season. Monitoring helps ensure sprays are applied exactly when needed.

“Drench” means to spray the insecticide in at least 1000 L/ha (400 L/acre) of water on the soil 10 cm on each side of the plants in the row.

 

Parsnip Disease Management

 

At least two fungi cause canker on parsnip: Itersonilia and Phoma.These diseases are very common in wet seasons, causing a leaf spot on the foliage and a rusty brown to black decay of the roots. Root infection usually begins at the crown or at points where carrot rust fly larvae have wounded the root.

Control

  • Gladiator is the most resistant variety recommended in B.C. In Ontario, Andover is said to be resistant to both Itersonilia and Phoma canker.
  • Rotate crops. Do not replant parsnips for at least one year after a canker-infected crop has been grown.
  • The leaf spot phase may be quite destructive to the foliage under wet conditions. A fungicide spray program such as that used for foliar blights of carrots will reduce damage. See table below for instructions.
  • The leaf spot phase may be an important source of inoculum for the exposed shoulders of the roots under conditions of frequent rainfall or irrigation. Hilling the shoulders with soil will reduce the number of infections.
  • Carrot rust fly wounds may be followed by canker infection. These infections can be prevented by closer attention to rust fly control.
Chemical Control of Canker
Product Rate PHI* Comments

Bravo 500 ZN

(chlorothalonil)

Group M5
2.8 L/ha (1.1 L/acre) 7
  • Repeat using 7 to 10 day spray intervals beginning in mid-August.
  • Do not apply more than 7 times per year.
  • Mixers and loaders must use a closed system.

  • Do not re-enter treated area for 21 days for hand harvesting; 5 days for scouting and 12 hours for all other activities..

Echo 90DF

(chlorothalonil)

Group M5
1.5 kg/ha (0.6 kg/ac) 7
  • Repeat using 7 to 10 day spray intervals beginning in mid-August.
  • Do not apply more than 7 times per year.
  • Do not re-enter treated area for 21 days for hand harvesting; 5 days for scouting and 12 hours for all other activities..

Echo 720

(chlorothalonil)

Group M5
1.9 kg/ha (0.60.8 kg/ac) 7
  • Repeat using 7 to 10 day spray intervals beginning in mid-August.
  • Do not apply more than 7 times per year.
  • If handling more than 340 kg a.i. in one day, mixers and loaders must use a closed system.

  • Do not re-enter treated area for 21 days for hand harvesting; 5 days for scouting and 12 hours for all other activities..

*PHI = Pre-harvest interval
BUFFERS – Refer to product label for buffer requirements, and consult the Vegetable Production Guide: Pesticide Regulations and Safety (PDF).
PESTICIDE GROUP DETAILS – see the Vegetable Production Guide: Pesticide Toxicity Table (PDF).