Raspberries

Raspberries

Growing Raspberries

The following is a general guide to raspberry management based upon plant and pest development. The suggested timing will vary according to raspberry variety, weather and location. The actions are for established plantings except where otherwise noted.

Timing Type of Action Action
JANUARY
Plants dormant
Plant Care
  • Continue pruning.
  • Tie canes to wires.
Other
  • Finalize marketing plans with processor(s) and/or for fresh sales.
  • Order fresh market containers, if required. Order bees, if not done last fall.
  • Ensure sprayers are tuned-up and calibrated.
Food Safety
  • Ensure a food safety plan is in place including a record keeping system.
FEBRUARY
Plant tops dormant but roots starting to become active
Plant Care
  • If canes are not being looped, start topping canes in late February.
  • After the pruning has been completed chop up the prunings by flail mowing.
Soil Care
  • Plan fertilizer program for the season. Have soil tested for nutrients if not done earlier. Order fertilizer.
  • If manure is to be used, begin application after mid-February as soil and weather conditions permit.  The Agricultural Environmental Code of Practice requires a risk assessment to be done prior to applying manure in February 
Disease Control
  • Note low spots where water collects. This can cause root rot. Plan for fall drainage improvements.
Weed Control
  • In late February or early March apply residual herbicide in a band to the row area for seasonal seedling weed control.
MARCH
Buds starting to swell and open
Plant Care
  • Finish all pruning, tying, topping or looping canes before the buds begin to break.
  • Order fertilizers, according to soil test, if not already done.
  • Chop prunings with a flail mower if not already done.
  • New plantings. Apply and thoroughly incorporate manure and lime prior to planting, if necessary. A risk assessment is required prior to applying manure in February under the Agricultural Environmental Code of Practice.
Disease Control
  • Examine canes for spur blight and cane blight.
  • Where field has a history of spur blight, apply a pre-bloom fungicide.
  • Apply a delayed dormant (green-tip bud stage) spray for cane diseases and yellow rust control, if required. Apply when canes are dry.
  • For bacterial blight control, apply a spray at the bud bursting stage if needed.
Insect Control
  • Monitor for clay coloured weevil feeding injury to the buds. Apply controls only if required.
Weed Control
  • In early March, before weed seeds start to germinate, apply residual herbicide for seasonal seedling weed control, if not done earlier.
Soil Care
  • If manure is to be used, finish applying before the buds begin to leaf-out. Prevent manure from contacting canes. Cultivate to work in annual cover crop.
APRIL
New canes and fruiting laterals growing quickly
Plant Care
  • In strong plantings remove the first flush of new canes by "shoot burning". Do not apply later than May 1.
  • Apply appropriate herbicide for weather conditions. In weaker fields remove (by hoeing or selective spraying) only the extra new shoots that develop outside the hill area. Apply the first application of commercial fertilizer in early April.
  • New plantings: plant dormant plugs from March-April. Fertilize, especially if manure was not applied prior to planting.
  • Order plants for following year's spring planting
Disease Control
  • If the weather is cool and wet, watch for bacterial blight and apply copper sprays if required. Examine oldest leaves on the fruiting laterals for yellow rust, especially if the weather is rainy. Apply a fungicide, if needed.
  • Examine plant roots where plant growth is poor for signs of root rot. Confirm root rot with diagnostic laboratory. Apply root rot foliar sprays as recommended. Plan to make raised beds after harvest.
Insect Control
  • Monitor for first generation leafrollers in new foliage and clay coloured weevil feeding damage to the fruiting laterals and leaves. Manage where necessary.
  • If the new canes (30 to 60 cm high) suddenly fall over, examine the bottom of the canes for crown borer feeding injury.
Weed Control
  • Begin shallow cultivation to control weeds between the rows. If quackgrass is a problem, treat the grassy areas with herbicide when the grass has 3 to 5 leaves. Sprays used for "shoot burning" should burn the tops of any weeds growing in the rows. Control any weeds in weaker fields by hoeing or by treating using a shielded nozzle.
Soil Care
  • Cultivate cover crop into the soil, if not done earlier.
Food Safety
  • Test irrigation and spray water for E. coli and fecal coliforms. Order toilets, hand washing units and other sanitary supplies.
MAY
Plants fill out and flowering begins
Plant Care
  • New plantings: continue to plant dormant plugs. Plant live tissue culture plugs in April-May after the risk of frost has passed.
  • Order plants for following year's spring planting
  • If not shoot burning, continue to hoe out extra shoots between hills. As a general rule, do not spray to remove new canes in the crowns of the plants after May 1.
  • If not using slow-release products, apply the second fertilizer application by mid-May. Apply foliar feed sprays, as required. Apply in slow drying conditions for best uptake. Irrigate as required.
  • Put honeybee colonies in field at start of flowering.
Disease Control
  • If spur blight lesions are present on floricanes, apply fungicides when new canes are 20 - 25 cm tall. Watch for  yellow rust pustules on the leaves, especially if the weather has been cool and rainy. Apply fungicides if the rainy weather continues, as required.
  • Begin fruit rot control sprays once flowers start to open (10% bloom). Repeat  as necessary during periods of wet weather. If the weather is cool and wet, continue to watch for bacterial blight (to mid-May). Apply copper sprays if required.
  • After a period of hot weather, plants suffering from root rot may start to show stress. If severe, they may collapse and die. Fruiting canes usually show signs first. No controls possible at this time. Watch primocane leaves for spur blight (wedge-shaped lesions).
  • If a new field is to be planted next spring, now is a good time to check the nematode levels in the soil to determine if soil fumigation is required. If fumigation is required, make every effort to control all weeds and have the soil deeply cultivated and ready for treatment.
Insect & Mite Control
  • Monitor for raspberry fruitworm beetles when flower bud clusters separate. Monitor for leafrollers, caterpillars, and adult weevils that feed on the leaves, fruiting laterals and new cane growth. If necessary, apply controls before the flowers open to avoid harming the bees. Start monitoring for two-spotted mites and predatory mites on the lower leaves, in early May.
Other
  • New plantings. Install posts and wires before the new canes become too tall and get in the way.
JUNE
Bloom to harvest
Plant Care
  • Put honeybee colonies in fields at start of flowering, if not done earlier. Continue with foliar feeding, as required. Tuck in the new shoots behind the nurse wires in preparation for harvest. Control surplus new shoots outside the hills so they do not interfere with harvest. Irrigate as necessary. Start first harvest.
Disease Control
  • Apply control sprays for fruit rot, as required. In prolonged rainy periods, watch for Botrytis cane wilt and yellow rust. Apply controls as necessary. Watch for root rot (see May, above)
  • Nematodes, (see May, above). For new fields planned for next spring, contact a custom applicator and make an appointment for fall fumigation.
Insect & Mite Control
  • Monitor for spotted wing drosophila (SWD) and apply protective sprays as fruit ripens. Carefully inspect the plantings for leafrollers, caterpillars and weevil feeding injury. If necessary, apply a pre-harvest control spray. Watch for high populations of aphids at the tips of new canes and on lower side of newer leaves. Continue monitoring through June for two-spotted mites and predatory mites. Apply control sprays before harvest, and at the best stage of mite development if needed. When applying sprays, observe the minimum number of days required between spraying and harvesting.
Food Safety
  • Place portable toilet and hand washing units. Ensure workers are trained in good hygiene and harvesting practices.
LATE JUNE TO EARLY AUGUST
Harvest
Plant Care
  • Harvest and market fruit.
  • Irrigate as necessary.
  • Collect leaf samples for nutrient analysis from mid to late harvest.
Disease Control
  • Apply fruit rot sprays, as necessary. If rain occurs during harvest, apply a fungicide immediately after a harvest to prevent the development of "spot mold" on the fruit.
  • Note: Fruit rot control sprays also help prevent spur blight. In rainy seasons, watch for Botrytis cane wilt on the new canes. It is usually only a problem where the cane growth is very dense and the air circulation is poor. It is not usually a problem on Meeker. Note areas with symptoms of root rot- they are most evident when the plants are under stress from hot, dry weather (see May, above). Inspect primocanes for spur blight.
Insect & Mite Control
  • Continue to apply protective sprays for spotted wing drosophila as required. Apply sprays to control leafrollers and cutworms if they become contaminants in machine harvested fields. Observe the minimum number of days to harvest. Continue to check fields for mites and predators levels, especially if the weather is hot.
AUGUST
After harvest
Plant Care
  • Continue irrigation after harvest to maintain growth in new canes. Raise the side nurse wires to keep the new canes growing straight and reduce the severity of spur blight and other cane diseases.
  • Apply foliar boron sprays, if plants are deficient.
  • Take post-harvest soil nitrate tests after crop harvest, from August 15 to September 15. Sampling for other nutrients can be done in the fall or spring.
Disease Control
  • If Botrytis cane wilt was a problem during harvest, remove old fruiting canes to improve air circulation and stop the spread of the disease. If root rot was a problem, the following cultural steps will help reduce the problem for next winter: subsoil to break up layers of compacted soil caused by picking and spraying operations, cultivate up a raised bed in the row area (do this after the hot summer weather), and plant a cover crop.
  • Keep the new canes tucked in the wire for good air circulation to minimize spur blight and other cane diseases. Apply nematicides for nematode control, if soil tests show necessary. Irrigate prior to treatment.
  • New plantings. Control all weeds and work soil deeply in fields to be planted next spring. Irrigate if the soil is too dry for fumigation.
Insect & Mite Control
  • Continue to watch for outbreaks of mites. Check for predators and apply controls only if needed.
Soil Care
  • Cultivate between the rows for weed control. Subsoil to loosen the soil that was compacted during harvest. If a cover crop is to be planted, rotovate to prepare a seed bed. Plant cover crop as early as possible for best results. If soil is dry, irrigate to stimulate cover crop germination and early growth.
Other
  • Clean up trash left in the fields by the pickers. Return any empty flats to the processor. Repair any broken posts. If stockpiling manure, ensure the piles are securely covered with a waterproof cover for winter. Never apply manure after harvest.
SEPTEMBER
After harvest
Plant Care
  • Continue to irrigate if the weather is hot and dry.
  • Collect soil samples for nutrient analysis.  
  Disease Control
  • Continue cultural controls for root rot (see August, above), if necessary.
  • Nematodes. Apply nematicides in established fields, if necessary and not done earlier. If dry, irrigate prior to treatment.
  • Root Rot. Apply foliar sprays as required while leaves are still green and plants are actively growing.
  • New plantings. Fumigate land for spring planting.
  Insect & Mite Control
  • Continue to monitor for mites and predators. Apply controls only if needed and before resistant, overwintering stage appears in mid-September.
  • Monitor for crown borer eggs. Apply foliar sprays for crown borer (mid-Sept. to mid-Oct), if required.
  Weed Control
  • If no cover crop has been planted, cultivate as needed for weed control.
  Soil Care
  • Plant fall cereal cover crops (to mid-Sept.), if not done earlier.
  • Take post-harvest soil nitrate tests before September 15. Subsoil to loosen compacted soil and to improve winter drainage. Subsoil when soil is dry and before the heavy fall rains begin.
  • New plantings. Install drainage if required.
  Other
  • Mow any high grass and weeds around the raspberry planting to discourage mice. If stockpiling manure, ensure that piles are securely covered for winter. Never apply manure after harvest.
  • New plantings. Order plants for spring planting, if not already done.
OCTOBER
Pre-dormancy
Plant Care
  • Start pruning out old fruiting canes (floricanes). Wait to remove weak or excess 1-year-old canes until most of leaves have dropped. Collect soil samples for nutrient analysis (except nitrogen), if not done earlier.
Disease Control
  • Drench for root rot control before soil freezes (late Oct to Nov. 30), if required. Spray just prior to a rain as water is needed to move the chemical to the root zone. Do not apply in bright sunshine as this breaks down the chemical. Where control of bacterial blight is needed, apply copper sprays or Bordeaux Mixture.
Weed Control
  • Apply fall and early winter residual herbicides, if required. If blackberries and other shrubby plants are a problem around the raspberry field, treat with a glyphosate material (e.g. Roundup) before they lose their leaves. Do not allow drift onto raspberries or other valuable plants. Continue to control high weeds and grass around the fields to discourage mice.
Soil Care
  • Continue to subsoil fields, if not done earlier. Subsoiling will not hurt cover crops.
Other
  • Cover manure piles for winter, if not done earlier. Clean, service and winterize equipment.
NOVEMBER AND DECEMBER
Plants becoming dormant
Plant Care
  • Continue pruning out the old canes (do not top yet). Start to prune out all weak or unwanted new canes when they have lost most of their leaves (Dec). Loosen wires for winter so that they can contract with the winter cold without loosening the posts.
Weed Control
  • Apply early winter residual herbicides, if not applied earlier.
Other
  • Order bees for next season.

Site Selection

With good soil, climatic and management conditions, raspberry plantings can remain productive for 10 or more years. However nematodes, root rot or raspberry bushy dwarf virus (RBDV) may greatly shorten a planting’s productive life.

Consider the following when selecting and preparing sites for raspberries:

Soil

Raspberries grow best on loam or sandy-loam soils that are 60 to 120 cm (2 to 4 ft) deep and well-drained. A soil pH of 5.8 to 6.5 is optimum. Avoid planting on poorly drained, heavy soils or soils with a hardpan that will prevent good drainage. This will cause root rot problems and result in poor yields and a short planting life. Raspberries can be grown on sandy and gravelly soils but will require careful irrigation and nutrient management, as these soils do not hold water and nutrients well. Drip irrigation is particularly beneficial on these soils.

Drainage

Raspberries cannot tolerate flooding or waterlogged soils, especially when the plants are actively growing. The roots will rot and the plants may die. A subsurface drainage system is necessary for fields with poor natural drainage. Surface drainage, provided by the slope of fields or raised beds, also helps to reduce the risk of root rot. Seed fall cereal cover crops to prevent soil erosion on hilly sites; and plant grass on drives, headlands, and in areas where water runs in the field.

Refer to the BCAGRI “Soil Management Handbook for the Fraser Valley” at www.agf.gov.bc.ca/resmgmt/publist/600Series/610000-1_Soil_Mgmt_Handbook_FraserValley.pdf and the B.C. Agricultural Drainage Manual at www.al.gov.bc.ca/resmgmt/publist/500Series/525500-1.pdf.

Irrigation

The root system of raspberries extends to a depth of about 1.2 m (4 ft). However, most of the active roots are in the upper 30 cm (1 ft) of soil. Thus, irrigation is essential for consistently high yields. Especially critical periods for irrigation are during the year of planting and, once established, from flowering to harvest. Manage irrigation carefully. Overwatering may result in nutrient leaching and encourage root rot. Too little irrigation or too long a period between irrigations will cause moisture stress resulting in small berries and reduced yields. Drip irrigation provides uniform continuous moisture to the crop and can help maximize yields. Refer to the section "Water Management" for information on water quality.

Rotation

Crop rotation is a sound agricultural principle that should be followed whenever practical. If raspberries are grown repeatedly in the same field for many years, root rots, insect pests and resistant weeds tend to increase. When this occurs, raspberry yields decline and plantings need to be replaced more frequently. Whenever possible, avoid growing raspberries in fields where strawberries, potatoes, peppers or tomatoes were grown in the previous four or five years as these crops are affected by similar diseases.

Site Preparation

This is a critical step to successful planting. Start to prepare the field the year before planting. Consider the following:

Nematode Control

Sample the soil in April and have a laboratory check for nematodes to determine if soil fumigation is required. If fumigation is needed, prepare the site for an early fall fumigation. To do this, control all weeds and deep cultivate the soil (see “Nematodes”).

Wireworm Control

Check for wireworms, especially in sites previously in sod, and plan for control (see “Wireworms” below and in “General Berry Pests”).

Weed Control

Control established perennial weeds such as quackgrass, horsetail, curled dock and Canada thistle before planting.

Manure and Compost

Manure and compost add organic matter to the soil. They are also valuable sources of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and several micro-nutrients which are required by raspberries. Avoid heavy manure applications as this could injure new plants and increase the risk of polluting groundwater. Use of properly composted manure is preferred.

Apply manure or compost in the spring (February 15 to April 15) at least one week before planting. Be sure to consider the nutrients in the manure or compost when determining the fertilizer requirements.

Poultry manure is commonly used. Spread manure (broadcast and incorporated into the soil) in the spring before planting at rates according to crop need. 

Compost can be applied at slightly higher rates than those for poultry manure. An analysis of the nitrogen and salt content of the compost is recommended. Compost releases nitrogen more slowly to the crop than poultry manure.

Soil pH

Raspberries do best in a soil that is slightly acid to neutral, with a pH range of 5.8 to 6.5. Poor growth and yields often occur when the pH is outside this range. Check and adjust soil pH before planting and every 3 to 4 years after planting. When the soil pH is 5.5, it can be raised by adding ground limestone at 2 to 4 tonne/ha (1 to 2 ton/acre) depending on soil type. Broadcast and disk in lime either in the fall prior to fumigation or cover crop planting, or in the spring before planting. 

Nutrients

Soil analysis is the best way to determine the nutrient requirements for a new planting. Take soil samples in the fall before planting so any needed amendments can be added as the field is prepared. Refer to the nutrient management section below for sampling procedures and application rates. Base the spring fertilizer application on the results of the soil test. Include the nutrient content of any manure or compost used when determining the amount of fertilizer to apply.

Incorporate base fertilizer into the bed before planting. Subsequent applications can be broadcast over the surface of the bed or applied in bands 30 cm (1 ft) away from the row and 10 cm (4 in) below the soil surface on both sides of the row. Nitrogen rate should not exceed 75 kg/ha in the year of planting. Also refer to the nutrient management section below.

Planting

Purchase certified plants to reduce the risk of introducing nematodes, viruses, root rot and other diseases into the field.

Plant early in the spring (March to early April) for best establishment and early yields.

Plant as soon as possible after the plants are removed from storage. Plant 1 to 2 plants at the desired spacing taking care not to set the plants deeper than they grew in the nursery.

Dormant root cuttings can also be used. Use about 60 g (2 oz) of random length cuttings per hill and plant about 5 cm (2 in) deep.

Do not let the plants or root cuttings dry out at any stage of the planting process. Irrigation is essential for late plantings when weather is warm and dry.

Most machine harvested raspberries are grown on raised beds which are made at time of planting. Raised beds provide a better drained root zone which reduces the incidence of root rot. They also allow the catcher plates of the mechanical harvester to fit closer to the crown resulting in better fruit recovery.

Spacing

Raspberries are grown in hills with a spacing of 75 cm (2.5 ft) between the plants. Row spacing depends upon the plant vigour, and the cultivating and harvesting equipment. Most varieties are generally planted in rows 3 m (10 ft) apart, requiring 4,305 plants/ha (1,742 plants/acre). However, where narrow machinery and upright varieties are used, a row spacing of 2.7 m (9 ft) may be used, which requires 4,784 plants/ha (1,936 plants/acre).

Training

Install post and wire trellises in the spring after the plants start to grow. The posts should be from 6 to 9 m (20 to 30 ft) apart on flat ground, depending upon the diameter of the posts used. Thus, 358 to 536 posts/ha are required (145 to 216 posts/acre). Closer spacing is required on rolling ground. Anchor or brace the end posts. The trellis system for mechanical harvest usually consists of one heavy wire per row to support the fruiting canes plus 2 lighter wires (12 to 14 gauge) to control the new canes.

All varieties currently recommended in B.C. are for well-drained soils only. No varieties will perform well on a poorly drained site. Varieties are susceptible to raspberry bushy dwarf virus (RBDV) unless otherwise noted.

Note: PARC is the Pacific Agri-Food Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada

Summer Fruiting Varieties

Cascade Delight

A variety from the Washington State University breeding program recommended for the fresh market only. Fruit size is equal to or greater than Tulameen and is firmer. The fruit is attractive, firm, glossy with many drupelets and has a well-balanced, traditional raspberry flavour. Yields have been equal to Tulameen.

The midpoint of the harvest season is similar to Tulameen, but the length of the harvest season is slightly shorter. It has good field resistance to root rot. It has long laterals that make it unsuitable for machine harvest. Excess nitrogen will make the laterals more prone to breakage.

Chemainus

A release from the PARC breeding program that is recommended in all areas. Fruit is attractive, large, dark, glossy and firm. It machine harvests well and is suited for mid season processing and fresh markets. It has good fruit shape with fine drupelets and some resistance to fruit rot. The plant has excellent vigour. Its primocanes are green with no spines and its laterals are short and strong with a good upright angle and well spaced fruit.

It is susceptible to raspberry bushy dwarf virus (RBDV), susceptible to crown gall, resistant to aphids and is  susceptible to root rot. Because of vigorous growth it is susceptible to cane Botrytis. Excess nitrogen will increase this problem.

Malahat

A variety from the PARC breeding program that ripens up to a week earlier than any other recommended variety and is well suited to the fresh and processing markets. Recommended in all areas, but may not be winter hardy in some interior locations. It produces high yields of large, firm, high quality fresh market fruit.

Malahat is highly susceptible to root rot, therefore it should be planted only on raised beds in well-drained soil that is free of root rot. Fruit is produced on short laterals and is very easy to harvest. It is susceptible to RBDV. It is resistant to aphids and to cane Botrytis infection.

Meeker

Recommended for the Fraser Valley and Vancouver Island where it is mainly grown for processing. It is suited to both hand and machine picking. It is firmer, later ripening and higher yielding, than Willamette.  Meeker has shown some tolerance to root rot on heavier soils, but it is less winter-hardy than most of the other listed varieties. It is immune to crown gall under field conditions. It is very susceptible to raspberry bush dwarf virus (RBDV).

Rudi (BC 90-4-23)

A new release from the PARC Agassiz program produces concentrated high yields of machine harvestable berries that ripen several days earlier than Meeker. Fruit is high quality, good flavour, firm and larger in size than Meeker. It is suited mainly for the processing market but also has potential for the early fresh market. It is resistant to aphids and has some field tolerance to root rot. It is susceptible to RBDV. It is recommended for trials in all areas.

Saanich

A release from the PARC breeding program that is recommended for trial for the individual quick freeze (IQF), processing and fresh markets. A very high yielding variety with a fruit size that is slightly larger than Meeker. The medium to large, glossy, firm, excellent quality fruit have fine drupelets and a pleasant flavour that is comparable to Tulameen. The canes are spineless with laterals that are short and bend easily without breaking and so are able to carry a heavy fruit load. 

It is well suited to mechanical harvest for the individually quick frozen (IQF) market. Under high fertility, This variety, although exposed to high raspberry bushy dwarf virus (RBDV) pressure for many years, has been slow to become infected.

Squamish (BC92-9-15) (trial)

A new release for trial from the PARC Agassiz program produces high yields of attractive, glossy, large, fruit that is suited for fresh and processing markets. It ripens earlier than most other varieties but a few days later than Malahat. It is a good potential replacement for the early fresh market. It machine harvests well. It shows good field tolerance to root rot. It is susceptible to RBDV and spur blight.

Tulameen

Recommended for the fresh market in all areas. It produces exceptionally large, firm fruit of excellent colour and quality. It begins to ripen 4 or 5 days later than Willamette and has an exceptionally long harvest season. Large fruit is harvested until mid-August and this overlaps with early primocane varieties for fresh market. The canes are strong and upright. Tulameen is susceptible to root rot, therefore it should be planted on well-drained soil that is free of Phytophthora. It is susceptible to spot mould on single drupelets. It is not suitable for mechanical harvesting.

Willamette

Recommended for the Fraser Valley and Vancouver Island but not sufficiently hardy for most Interior locations. It was the main variety in B.C. for over 30 years. It is suited for both hand and machine picking for processing but it is not suitable for fresh marketing because of its dark fruit colour. Although it was preferred by the processing industry, it has now largely been replaced by Meeker. It is resistant to crown gall and to the common strains of raspberry bushy dwarf virus (RBDV). It is susceptible to aphids.

Wakefield

A proprietary variety only available to growers under license agreement. It is available only as tissue-cultured plug plants.  It is a late maturing variety producing high yields of small to medium size, very firm fruit, particularly suited to the Individual Quick Freeze (IQF) market. It is well suited to machine harvesting. It appears to be slow to develop raspberry dwarf virus (RBDV) and has some field resistance to root rot.

Table 1. Raspberry variety traits 
Variety Yield Harvest Season Fruit Weight (Size) Root Rot Tolerance Fruit Firmness Winter Hardiness Fruit Rot Resistance RBDV Resistance Machine Harvest
Malahat 4 Early 4 1 4 4 5 No 5
Squamish 5 Early 4 5 5 5 5 No 5
Willamette 3 Early 2 2 3 2 2 Yes 5
Rudi 5 Early 4 4 5 5 4 No 5
Chemainus 5 Mid 4 3 5 5 5 No 5
Meeker 4 Mid 3 3 3 2 4 No 4
Saanich 5 Mid 3 3 5 5 5 No 4
Cascade Bounty 5 Late 4 5 4 5 4 No 4
Cascade Delight 5 Late 5 5 5 5 4 No 2
Tulameen 5 Late 5 1 4 3 4 No 2
Wakefield 5 Late 3 4 5 4 5 Unknown 5

(5 = Excellent, 1 = Poor)

Source: PARC and field trials

Fall Fruiting Varieties (Primocane Fruiting)

Fall fruiting varieties are used to extend the fresh market harvest season. They are harvested in August through September, after the summer fruiting varieties.

Anne

A yellow-fruited variety with excellent yields of high quality fruit with a pleasant, apricot-like flavour. Fruit firmness is comparable to Dinkum, better than Autumn Bliss but not as firm as Heritage. It ripens earlier than Heritage.

Autumn Bliss

A fall fruiting variety from England. Ripe fruit is produced in early August, 2 to 3 weeks before Heritage. Quality through August is good, but deteriorates in September. Recommended for trial when fresh market fruit is needed through August. It is thorny, hard to pick and very susceptible to raspberry bushy dwarf virus (RBDV).

Autumn Britten

An early ripening variety from the UK. Fruit is large, medium red, firm and ripens earlier than Autumn Bliss. Can be difficult to harvest. Plant is productive, canes have some spines. Susceptible to RBDV and resistant to aphids.

Caroline

Fruits up to two weeks later than Autumn Bliss, but earlier than Heritage. It is high yielding and has the largest fruit size of the fall-bearing varieties. Good firmness, flavour, colour and overall quality. Fruit releases readily making it easy to harvest. Plant is tall and vigorous.

Dinkum

This Australian variety has consistently been one of the highest yielding fall fruiting varieties in experimental plots in Abbotsford. It ripens up to 3 weeks earlier than Heritage. The fruit is dark purple-red with attractive large drupelets and a good flavour. It is easier to harvest than Heritage. The fruit is somewhat soft, but firmer than Autumn Bliss, yet it resists at-harvest and post-harvest fruit rot. The fruit may become soft and crumbly later in the season.

Himbo Top™

A new release from the Promo-Fruit, Swiss breeding program. It produces strong canes that carry high yields of medium size fruit that is easy to pick. Plants stand up well to root rot. It is recommended for limited trials only.

Heritage

A standard fall fruiting variety. The canes are very vigorous, hardy, erect and sturdy. The plant produces many suckers. The fruit is medium-large, attractive and of reasonable flavour. It is firm and has good shelf life. It is recommended for mild coastal areas to extend the fresh fruit market season from September to first frost.

Jaclyn

An early ripening variety from the U. of Maryland program. Fruit is uniform, conic in shape, medium to large size, dark red and tends to be soft in hot weather. It matures just ahead of Caroline. It produces abundant, spiny canes and yields moderately. It is very susceptible to yellow rust. Does not release well in cool weather.

Joan J

An early ripening, high-yielding, spine-free variety from the U.K. Fruit is large and firm with superior flavour compared to Autumn Bliss. Fruit is dark red and becomes darker when fully ripe and after harvest. High vigour and erect growth habit. Recommended for trial. Does not release well in cool weather.

Nantahala

A new variety from North Carolina State University with a late harvest season. In B.C. it is recommended for trial under tunnels. It produce large, high quality berries that are firm with good flavour.

Polka

An early ripening variety from the Polish breeding program. It produces attractive medium to large, glossy fruit that is firm, conic in shape with excellent sweet flavor. Plant is moderately vigorous. Some tolerance to root rot. Recommended for trial.

Summit

An early, high yielding, fall fruiting variety that ripens about two weeks earlier than Heritage. Fruit is round, and small to medium in size. Plant produces high number of primocanes. Good resistance to root rot.

Vintage (ORUS 2786-5)

A late, fresh market primocane fruiting variety from the USDA-ARS program in Oregon. It ripens a week later than Heritage. Fruit is large, firm and glossy with excellent flavor. Susceptible to root rot. Recommended for trial.

Cover Crops

Annual or permanent cover crops can be planted between the raspberry rows. Cover crops suppress weeds, take up excess nitrogen left in the soil in the fall, improve soil structure and drainage, and improve trafficability.

Annual Cover Crops

These are planted every year after harvest and before September 15. Barley and oats are preferred as they grow rapidly in early fall but are usually killed by colder winter temperatures. In the spring, cover crop residue can be flail mowed along with prunings or rotovated into the soil surface. Nitrogen from the decaying cover crop is then released into the soil for use by the raspberry crop. Fall or cereal rye, or annual grasses, can also be used. They are less effective at trapping leachable nitrogen in the fall or winter as their main growth period is in the spring. These cover crops may require additional management in the spring – such as mowing, discing, or herbicide application –to prevent them from competing for nutrients and water.

Perennial Cover Crops

Fescue can be used as a permanent cover crop in raspberries but must be managed to prevent it from growing into the raspberry row. Permanent cover crops prevent weed growth, compaction and soil erosion, however, they are difficult to repair if ruts form from driving on them when the soil is too wet.

Soil Analysis

Soil analysis is the most accurate guide to fertilizer requirements for raspberries.

Sampling Method

Take soil samples from each sampling location in the field: Site (1): at base of the bed between the plants in the row, and Site (2): at the center of the bed between plants in the row (see figure below). Take samples from 10 to 20 different locations for each 8 hectare (20 acre) field area. Mix all the samples together. Avoid areas in the field that are not typical such as low spots or gravel outcrops. Where fields have more than one soil type, the areas should be sampled separately. Take soil samples for nitrogen analysis from the 0 to 30 cm (0 to 1 ft) of soil. Take soil samples for all other nutrients from 0 to15 cm (0 to 6 in).

Soil analysis sampling method diagram

Sampling Time

For mature crops, take soil samples for nitrogen after crop harvest, or between August 15 and September 15. A spring soil test cannot be used to assess nitrogen fertility levels of a raspberry field. For all other nutrients, fall or spring soil sampling can be used.

Nutrition

Leaf Analysis

Leaf analysis can be used to determine nutrient needs in raspberries but it has not been well-tested in B.C. Leaf analysis can also be used if a nutrient deficiency is suspected. Take leaf samples from mid-July to early-August to determine the fertilizer requirements for the following year. For the best interpretation, take leaf samples at the same stage of plant development (e.g. mid-harvest or late-harvest) each year and monitor year-to-year trends in nutrient status.

Collect the most recently fully expanded leaves from the new primocanes, about 30 cm from the tip of the cane. Leaves must be free of soil, pesticide and irrigation water residue. Select about 10 leaves from each of 5 plants distributed at random throughout the field. When checking for suspected nutrient deficiencies, take separate samples from good and poor growth areas and compare the results. These samples can be taken at any time during the growing season. Air dry all samples in an open paper bag or take them directly to a laboratory.

Table 2. Suggested range of leaf nutrient levels for raspberries based on late July to early August leaf analysis
Element Low Adequate High
Phosphorus (P) % < 0.16 0.16 to 0.18 0.19+
Potassium (K) % < 1.0 1.0 to 1.25 2.0+
Boron (B) ppm < 25.0 25 to 30 30.0+

Source: OSU EM 8903-E Nutrient Management Guide - Caneberries (2006)

Nitrogen Management

Most of B.C.’s raspberry crop is grown on irrigated sandy soils over the Abbotsford-Sumas Aquifer. This situation increases the risk of nitrogen leaching into the aquifer. Follow the nitrogen recommendations below to minimize the risk of groundwater contamination. Excess nitrogen application can result in leaching and may be harmful to the crop. Irrigation should be managed to prevent nitrogen leaching in the summer.

Nitrogen is supplied to the crop in various forms including cover crop residue, compost or manure, irrigation water, and fertilizer. To determine the amount of nitrogen fertilizer to apply, follow the Calculation of Nitrogen Fertilizer Requirement for Raspberries, Tables 3 to 7 below.

Cover Crops

See Table 4. When determining the nitrogen credits for cover crops, the following assumptions are made:

  • Barley or oats are used
  • Seeding rate of 100 kg/ha (40 kg/acre)
  • Planted on all bare ground between rows and on headlands
  • About one third of all the nitrogen taken up by the cover crop is available in the following season

Manures and Compost

Poultry manure is an effective source of nitrogen for raspberries but must be stored and spread in an environmentally responsible manner. As manure can be a food safety risk, only composted manure or manure aged at least 3 months should be used. Different food safety programs have varying waiting periods between application and harvest. Check with your program or packer. Manure releases nutrients slowly, and it will continue to release nitrogen after raspberry harvest when the plant uptake is reduced. For this reason, it is highly recommended that a cover crop be planted on fields where manure was applied. Nutrients are captured by the cover crop and prevented from leaching into the groundwater. These nutrients will be available to the raspberry crop the following spring when the cover crop is incorporated.

It is difficult to distribute manure evenly over the field at a low enough rate to provide the optimum level of nitrogen needed by the crop. This can be addressed by applying manure to alternate rows. Each row will get a portion of the nutrients applied without over fertilizing the crop. A manure spreader designed for side delivery or band application can also be used to apply poultry manure directly to the root zone. Spread manure only once each season – broadcast and incorporate into the soil in the early spring (after February 15 and no later than dictated by your food safety program).

Most poultry manure contains up to 12 kg/yd3 of total nitrogen. Poultry manure is generally very high in calcium and contains high levels of ammonia nitrogen that is readily available to plants. Some ammonia nitrogen is lost during application. Losses are greater when manure is left on the soil surface for more than 12 hours.

Established Plantings

Apply poultry manure at no more than 17 yd3/ha (7 yd3/acre) and immediately incorporate. This provides most of the nitrogen requirement of established raspberries. See Table 5 for manure N credits.

A soil nitrate test about 3 weeks after application of manure can be done to determine if more nitrogen is required.

Fertilizer Nitrogen

The timing of the fertilizer application is dependent on the soil texture. Coarser soils (gravel and sands) have less ability to retain nutrients and require several applications. On sandy soils, experience has shown that nitrogen fertilizers should normally be applied twice per year (50% in early April and 50% in early May). Raspberries grown on stony or gravelly soils will benefit from three equal applications of nitrogen fertilizer. Start in early April and apply at monthly intervals. Excess nitrogen after harvest, regardless of the source, is especially harmful as it may delay cane dormancy and increase the risk of winter injury. It also is prone to leaching.

Slow-release fertilizers have been used with some success on very coarse or heavily irrigated soils. A single application, usually in early April, will provide nitrogen over an extended period of time. Follow the manufacturers’ directions to avoid late season nitrogen release.

Commercial fertilizer can be applied in a band 30 to 40 cm away from both sides of the raspberry rows and about 10 cm below the soil surface. Alternatively, it can also be broadcast over the surface of the bed. Rain or irrigation is then required to carry nutrients into the root zone.

Nitrogen and other nutrients may be injected and applied by drip irrigation. For more information refer to B.C. Ministry of Agriculture publication, “Chemigation Guidelines for BC” at http://www.agf.gov.bc.ca/resmgmt/publist/500Series/578100-1.pdf.

Calculation of nitrogen fertilizer requirement for raspberries

To determine the amount of fertilizer nitrogen to apply to the crop (Table 7), obtain the total N crop requirement from Table 3. Then determine nitrogen credits for cover crops (Table 4), manure use (Table 5), and irrigation water (Table 6). Finally, calculate the rate of nitrogen fertilizer required.

Table 3. Crop Nitrogen Requirement Based on Yield Potential

Young, vigorous crops with a yield potential of greater than 12 tonnes/ha may utilize up to 80 to 100 kg/ha of nitrogen. If the crop is near the end of its life or in decline due to nematodes or other root problems, it will use less nitrogen, in the range of 40 to 60 kg/ha.

Enter the nitrogen requirement into Table 7 – Line A.

Crop Nitrogen Requirement Yield Potential
High
(> 12 tonnes/ha)

Moderate

(7.5 to 12 tonnes/ha)
Low
(< 7.5 tonnes/ha)
80 – 100 kg/ha 60 – 80 kg/ha 40 – 60 kg/ha

Table 4. Cover crop nitrogen credits

Enter the cover crop credit into Table 7 –Line B.

"Credit Level" refers to the plant available nitrogen (kg N/ha) released from the cover crop residue in the following crop year.

Assumes barley or oats seeded at a rate of 100 kg/ha (89 pounds/acre) and planted on all bare ground between rows and on headlands.

Table 4. Cover crop nitrogen credits
Credit Level Description of Cover Crop
15-20 Seeded between August 15 and September 1. Excellent stand, vigorous growth, over 30 cm (1 ft) high prior to frost.
5-10 Seeded prior to September 15. Good stand, less vigorous growth, about 30 cm (1 ft) high before frost.
0-3 Seeded after September 15. Poor quality stand, spotty growth, less than 30 cm (1 ft) high.
0 No cover crop

Table 5. Nitrogen credits for spring applied poultry manure*

Enter the manure credit into Table 7 –Line C and D.

Table 5. Nitrogen credits for spring applied poultry manure
Timing Application Method Calculation
Current Year Incorporated within 12 hours of application

Current Year Nitrogen Credit (kg/ha)=

33 X volume of applied manure yd/ha
Current Year Not Incorporated

Current Year Nitrogen Credit (kg/ha) =

33 X volume of applied manure yd/ha
Previous Year Either Method

Previous Year Nitrogen Credit (kg/ha) =

33 X volume of applied manure yd/ha

*Notes:

  • The kg N/yd3 takes moisture content and density variations into account. This is an expected average value of layer, broiler, and turkey manures provided by the Sustainable Poultry Farming Group 1994 Fact Sheet “Standard Characteristics of Poultry Manures (Nutrient Contents).”
  • Assumes that manure is kept covered after leaving the poultry barn and is in a solid or semi-solid form.
  • N credits assume 50% N availability for incorporated manure and 33% for unincorporated manure.

Table 6. Irrigation water nitrogen credit

Find your closest location.

Multiply the nitrate concentration from your analytical report (ppm or mg/L) by the conversion factor.
Irrigation Water Nitrogen Credit = Nitrate concentration (ppm or mg/L) X conversion Factor

Enter the resulting Irrigation Water Nitrogen Credit into Table 7 – Line E.

Table 6. Irrigation water nitrogen credit
Location Conversion Factor
Abbotsford 1.52
Chilliwack 0.85
Ladner 1.35
Langley 1.01
Sumas 1.01

Notes:
The conversion factor assumes a drip irrigation system with 95% efficiency, a crop adjustment factor of 0.7 for raspberries, and imperial to metric factors (Water Conservation Factsheet, B.C. Ministry of Agriculture).

An alternative to this calculation may be used if you know the expected volume of water use. Volume of water (acre-inches applied) X Nitrate concentration (ppm or mg/L) X 0.254 = Kg N/ha

Table 7. Calculation of nitrogen fertilizer requirement for raspberries

Table 7. Calculation of nitrogen fertilizer requirement for raspberries
Parameter Acceptable Range Actual Calculation Example
A. Nitrogen Requirement from Table 3 0 – 100 kg/ha   80 kg N/ha
B. Cover Crop Nitrogen Credit – from Table 4 0 – 20 kg/ha   5 kg N/ha
C. Current Year Poultry Manure Nitrogen Credit – from Table 5
4.5 kg/yd3 X volume applied yd3/ha OR 3.0 kg/yd3 X volume applied yd3/ha
0 – 78 kg/ha   30 kg N/ha
D. Previous Year Poultry Manure Nitrogen Credit – from Table 5
1.0 kg/yd3 X volume applied yd3/ha
0 – 18 kg/ha   10 kg N/ha
E. Irrigation Water Nitrogen Credit – from Table 6     10 kg N/ha
F. Fertilizer Nitrogen Required = A – (B + C + D + E) 0 – 100 kg/ha   25 kg N/ha

Example explanation:

Calculation of nitrogen fertilizer requirement for raspberries: example explanation
     
A. Nitrogen Requirement
The field in the previous 2 years yielded 9 tonnes/ha. Therefore the nitrogen requirement was based on a mid range recommendation.
= 80 kg/ha
B. Cover Crop Nitrogen Credit
The field was seeded with a cover crop of barley around Sept.15 of the previous year and grew to only 21 cm.
= 5 kg/ha
C. Current Year Poultry Manure Nitrogen Credits
10 yd3/ha of broiler manure will be applied but not incorporated 10 kg/yd3 X 3.0 yd3/ha = 30 kg/ha
= 30 kg/ha
D. Previous Year poultry Manure Nitrogen Credit
Applied 10 yd3/ha in previous year: 1.0 kg/yd3 X 10 yd3/ha = 10 kg/ha
= 10 kg/ha
E. Irrigation Water Nitrogen Credit
The field is located in the Abbotsford area (conversion factor = 1.52) and the lab report indicated 6 ppm of nitrate-nitrogen in the water.
1.52 X 6 ppm = 9.12 kg/ha.
= 10 kg/ha
F. Fertilizer Nitrogen Required
80 – (5+30+10+9) = 25 kg/ha
= 25 kg/ha

Post-harvest Soil Nitrate Test

(PHNT) The PHNT is a “report card” test which measures how successful the crop was in utilizing available nitrogen. It is desirable for the soil nitrate-N level (0 to 30 cm depth) to be less than 25 ppm nitrate-N for a sample taken between August 15 and September 15. This level shows that the crop was able to use most of the soil and applied nitrogen. Greater levels indicate that nitrogen was applied above crop requirements and there will be an increased risk of nitrate leaching. In this case, adjustments need to be made to the management program including a reduction in applied fertilizer nitrogen.

Laboratory results of the PHNT are generally interpreted as follows:

Low test results ( <15 ppm): The nitrogen applied in the previous season was efficiently utilized by the crop. Follow similar nitrogen management for the upcoming season.

Medium test results (16 - 25 ppm): Slightly higher than desirable concentrations of nitrate-nitrogen remain in the soil. Consider reducing the amount and/or improve the placement, form, and timing of nitrogen fertilizer for the upcoming growing season.

High test results (26 - 50 ppm): An excess concentration of nitrate-nitrogen remained in the soil suggesting that excess nitrogen was applied to the crop and/or poor soil/crop health limited proper uptake. Management practices must be evaluated including a significant reduction in manure and nitrogen fertilizer applications for the upcoming growing season. Consider options to improve the placement, form and timing of nitrogen fertilizer

Very high test results (> 50 ppm): Results indicate an extreme concentration of nitrogen in the soil. A complete nutrient management plan should be done including substantial reductions in manure and nitrogen fertilizer application and improvement in the placement, form and timing of fertilization.

Other Nutrients

New Plantings

Based on soil test results, split potassium (K2O) applications—broadcast and incorporate one-half the necessary amount before planting and band the remainder with the nitrogen and phosphorus.

Magnesium, Boron and Calcium Deficiencies

Magnesium, boron and calcium levels are frequently low in coarse, sandy soils. Soil test to find out the amount available to the crop.

Foliar Fertilizer Sprays

Apply in slow-drying conditions for the best uptake. Do not apply during very hot weather as leaf-burning may occur. The plants generally respond better to foliar feeding during the earlier portion of the growing season when the leaves are younger and less waxy.

Old Fruiting Canes (Floricanes)

These should be cut out at the soil level. Do not leave stumps—this helps to control crown borer. Usually fruiting cane removal is best done after September or October. However, if Botrytis cane wilt or spur blight is a problem in wet years, old canes can be cut immediately after harvest to increase air circulation.

New Canes (Primocanes)

The undersize or unwanted new canes are best removed after most of the leaves have dropped – usually about December. Pruning out these canes earlier is sometimes necessary but the risk of winter injury is increased as plants become more exposed. Select up to 12 vigorous new canes per plant. Remove all weak canes. Tie canes to the wires in small bunches of 3 or 4 canes.

On average, one 50 lb bale of binder twine is needed to tie 1.2 ha (3 acres) of raspberries. At this time, arch or loop over new canes in plantings trained to this system. If topping new canes, wait until late February when the plants are fully dormant and top to a height of 1.5 m (5 ft).

Cold Areas

In areas of cold winters or deep snow, delay all pruning until late winter. The old canes help to protect the fruiting canes. However, an initial topping 30 cm (12 in) higher than the final topping can be made when the canes are nearly dormant to minimize wind and snow damage.

Fall Fruiting (Primocane) Varieties

Cut all canes off to the ground in the winter. In the spring, keep only about 12 new canes per plant for fruiting. Prune or hoe out all excess canes as they appear during the growing season.

Insect pollination is essential for raspberry production. Most pollination is done by honeybees and wild insects (bumble bees, syrphid flies) so it is critical that they are not killed with insecticide sprays during flowering. Wild pollinators, such as bumble bees, are especially important in cloudy or rainy weather, when honeybees do not fly.

Placing commercial honeybee colonies in fields during bloom can increase raspberry yields by increasing the amount of pollen transferred. This results in larger fruit. This is particularly important in areas of concentrated cropping and few wild pollinators. 

Refer to the Berry Production Guide: Pollination (PDF) to learn more.

Crumbly Berry

Crumbly berries have fewer than normal drupelets so will not hold together. The fruit crumbles when picked causing it to be downgraded or not marketable. Yield is also reduced.

The following conditions can cause crumbly berry:

Diseases

Viruses – such as Raspberry Bushy Dwarf Virus – often cause crumbly fruit. Viruses may prevent the normal development of seeds. Sometimes bacterial and fungal diseases such as bacterial blight or Botrytis also cause this problem.

Poor Pollination and Fertilization

Bees are the main pollinators of raspberries. Poor bee activity can lead to poor pollination and seed development resulting in crumbly fruit. Also, pollen and flower parts can be damaged by frost, insects and pesticides – resulting in crumbly fruit.

Lack of Nutrients

Anything that interferes with plant nutrition and affects fruit set may cause crumbly fruit. Examples are: low overall fertility, boron deficiency, root or crown damage (nematodes, diseases such as crown gall or root rot, insects such as crown borers), drought, poor drainage, or deep cultivation.

Varieties

Some varieties have a genetic tendency to produce crumbly fruit. The varieties recommended in this guide generally do not produce crumbly fruit unless affected by the above conditions.

Control

Practice the following control methods:

  • Use disease-free planting stock. Purchase certified plants
  • Maintain an effective disease and insect control program
  • Provide adequate fertilization—use leaf and soil analysis to determine plant requirements
  • Provide adequate irrigation
  • If wild pollinators are not present, rent honeybee colonies to ensure good pollination
  • Do not spray insecticides when bees are active in the field, to avoid killing pollinators

 

Raspberry Weed Management

Removing the first flush(es) of new shoots can be very beneficial in balancing new shoot growth with fruit production. It can be done by hand (in small plantings) or by carefully applying a directed herbicide spray along both sides of the rows. The nozzle should be as low as possible and seldom more that 30 cm above the ground. For best results it should be done before the canes are about 10 cm high and generally no later than May 1.

Late applications or excessive rates of Goal can severely restrict the re-growth of primocanes resulting in severe damage to the vigour of the planting. New or weak plantings need to be treated particularly carefully, i.e. use low rates and make application early, just after shoot emergence. Spray only under very calm conditions at slow tractor speeds and at a low pressure (less than 250 kPa) to avoid drift.

Note: Herbicide application rates are listed on pesticide labels and in the production guide for broadcast or total field coverage. If spraying a band over the row area only, then the treated area is only a portion of the whole field and rates must be reduced accordingly. For example, when spraying 1 m bands on rows 3 m apart, only one third of the field is treated.

Apply:

Goal 2XL (240 g/L oxyfluorfen) at 1.0 L/ ha (0.4 L/acre) in at least 500 L of water/ha (200 L/acre). This is a broadcast rate—do not apply this rate to one acre of raspberry field area (see note above). Treat primocanes that are 5 to 15 cm (2 to 6 in) high by spraying a one metre band directed towards the row. Use a higher rate of up to 2.0 L/ha (0.8 L/acre) only on vigorous fields if the majority of primocanes have reached the maximum height of 15 cm (6 in) or when hot, dry conditions precede the application. Apply with a non-ionic surfactant (e.g. Companion) at 2.5 L/1000 L of spray solution. Cloudy, damp weather will maximize the effectiveness of Goal. Do not apply within 50 days of harvest. Apply only once per season; or

Note: some growers have achieved good control, with reduced risk of crop injury, by reducing the rate of Goal to 0.5 L/ha (0.2 L/ha) and spraying very early, at first shoot emergence.

Ignite 15 SN (150 g/L glufosinate ammonium) at 6.67 L/ha (2.7 L/acre) in a minimum of 330 L/ha (130 L/acre) of water. This is a broadcast rate – do not apply this rate to one acre of raspberry field area (see note above). Treat primocanes that are 10 to 20 cm (4 to 8 in) high by spraying a 1 m band directed towards the primocane row. Do not contact desirable canes, plants or vegetation. Do not apply within 1 m of adjacent crops or environmentally sensitive areas such as waterbodies and wildlife habitat.

Note: Local experience has shown that Goal 2XL is best applied when the weather is wet and cool. Ignite 15 SN works best when weather is dry and warm.

Aim EC (240g/L carfentrazone-ethyl) at 150 ml/ha (60 ml/ac). Apply with a surfactant such as Agral 90 or Ag-Surf at 0.25 litres per 100 litres of spray solution, or Merge at 1 litre per 100 litres spray solution.  Treat primocanes that are young and approximately 13 cm high by spraying a one metre band directed towards the row.  Avoid contact with desirable canes, plants and vegetation.  Do not apply within 30 days of harvest.  Maximum two applications per year.

Pre-Plant Clean Up of Perennial Weeds

Prior to planting it is critical to control existing perennial weeds and brush. 

Year of Planting: Herbicide Application Rates
  Product Rate Comments
Prior to Weed Emergence Devrinol 50DF or Devrinol DF-XT (50% napropamide) 9 kg/ha
(3.6 kg/acre)
  • Apply after planting but prior to weed emergence. If rainfall does not occur within 7 days for a spring or fall application or 2 days for a summer application, irrigate with sufficient water to wet the soil to a depth of 5 to 10 cm.
  • Apply in enough water to get even distribution over the soil surface. This is usually accomplished in the range of 200 to 900 L/ha (80 to 360 L/acre) of water.
Prior to Weed Emergence Devrinol 10G
(10% napropamide)
45 kg/ha
(18 kg/acre)
  • Apply in the fall through early spring prior to weed emergence.
  • Requires mechanical incorporation, adequate irrigation or natural moisture for optimum results. The treatment must reach the zone of weed seed germination.
  • If rainfall does not occur within 7 days for a spring or fall application or 2 days for a summer application, a shallow incorporation to a depth of 2.5 to 5 cm or an irrigation with sufficient water to wet the soil to a depth of 5 to 10 cm is necessary.
Annual Grasses and Quackgrass Venture L (125 g/L fluazifop-p- butyl) 1.2 to 2.0 L/ha
(480 to 800 mL/acre)
  • Apply at the 2 to 6 leaf stage of annual grasses and to actively growing quackgrass that has 3 to 5 fully developed leaves.
  • Use the high rate for quackgrass control.
  • Apply in 50 to 200 L of water per hectare (20 to 80 L/acre). Use the higher volume for dense weed infestations.
  • Warning: Women capable of bearing children should avoid exposure to Venture L.
Annual Grasses and Quackgrass Poast Ultra (450 g/L sethoxydim) 0.47 to 1.1 L/ha
(200 to 440 mL/acre)
  • Apply at the 1 to 6 leaf stage of annual grasses and to actively growing quackgrass that has 1 to 6 leaves.
  • Use the high rate for quackgrass control
  • Apply with the adjuvant, Merge, at a rate of 1% of water volume used.
Annual Weeds (Between the row only) Aim EC (240 g/L carfentrazone -ethyl) 37 to 117 mL/ha
(15 to 47 mL/acre)
  • Apply between the rows with a hooded sprayer to emerged weeds. Crop injury will occur if drift is allowed to come in contact with green stem tissue, leaves, blooms or fruit.
  • To improve control, apply with surfactants such as Agral 90 or Ag-Surf at 0.25% (0.25 L/100 L of water) or Merge at 1% (1 L/100 L of water).

Note: Herbicide application rates are listed on pesticide labels and in the production guide for broadcast or total field coverage. If spraying a band over the row area only, then the treated area is only a portion of the whole field and rates must be reduced accordingly.

Weed Control in Established Plantings

Established Plantings: Herbicide Application Rates
  Product Rate Comments
Prior to Weed Emergence Devrinol 50DF
(50% napropamide)
9 kg/ha
(3.6 kg/acre)
  • Apply after planting but prior to weed emergence. If rainfall does not occur within 7 days for a spring or fall application or 2 days for a summer application, irrigate with sufficient water to wet the soil to a depth of 5 to 10 cm.
  • Apply in enough water to get even distribution over the soil surface. This is usually accomplished in the range of 200 to 900 L/ha (80 to 360 L/acre) of water.
Prior to Weed Emergence Devrinol 10G (10% napropamide) 45 kg/ha
(18 kg/acre)
  • Apply in the fall through early spring prior to weed emergence.
  • Requires mechanical incorporation, adequate irrigation or natural moisture for optimum results. The treatment must reach the zone of weed seed germination.
  • If rainfall does not occur within 7 days for a spring or fall application or 2 days for a summer application, a shallow incorporation to a depth of 2.5 to 5 cm or an irrigation with sufficient water to wet the soil to a depth of 5 to 10 cm is necessary.
Prior to Weed Emergence Princep Nine-T (90% simazine)


Simadex 500 (500 g/L simazine)


Simazine 480 (480 g/L simazine)
2.0 to 2.5 kg/ha (0.8 to 1.0 kg/acre)

3.6 to 4.5 L/ha (1.4 to 1.8 L/acre)

3.8 to 4.7 L/ha (1.5 to 1.9 L/acre)
  • Apply in early spring as a directed spray in a minimum of 300 L/ha (120 L/acre) of water in plantings established at least one year. Do not spray young shoots.
  • Requires surface moisture for activation. Loss of activity and poor weed control may result under prolonged, dry conditions. Not effective on established weeds.
Prior to Weed Emergence Sinbar 80W or WDG(80% terbacil)

Plus

Devrinol 50 DF(napropamide)
410 to 840 g/ha (166 to 340 g/acre)

plus

4 kg/ha (1.6 kg/acre)
  • Direct application below the canes in the fall or early spring to plants established at least one year.
  • Soil moisture is necessary for activation.
  • Will control annual weeds when applied prior their emergence or if actively growing but less than 5 cm tall or across.
  • Apply in a minimum of 200 L/ha of water (80 L/acre).
  • Use on soils with a range of 8 to 10% organic matter.
  • Do not apply within 70 days of harvest.
Prior to Weed Emergence Casoron G-4 (dichlobenil) 175 kg/ha
(69 kg/acre)
For spot control apply 17.5 g/m2
  • Seedling annual weeds, quackgrass, thistles, horsetail, yellow nutsedge, and bracken fern will be controlled or suppressed.
  • Apply in late fall or early winter. Do not apply in spring as injury will occur to new shoots. Apply in dry conditions when temperature is below 15°C. (This will prevent the herbicide from sticking to the canes.) Applications made above this temperature must be irrigated in immediately or be followed by rainfall.
  • Do not apply within 100 days of harvest.
Prior to Weed Emergence Chateau WDG (51.1% flumioxazin) 420 g/ha (168 g/acre)
  • Use on well-drained, coarse and medium-textured soils with less than 5% organic matter.  Do not apply to fine-textured soils.  
  • Apply as a uniform broadcast application  or as a uniform band directed at the base of the canes. Do not allow spray to come in contact with crop. 
  • Requires soil moisture to activate and set the herbicide. The preferred application timing is in the fall to maximize potential for rainfall to activate and set the herbicide.
  • Do not make more than two applications in a growing season. Do not make a sequential application within 30 days of the first application.
  • Do not apply within 7 days of harvest. 
Prior to Weed Emergence Authority (480 g/L sulfentrazone) 0.29 L/ha (0.12L/acre)
  • Apply as a broadcast spray or as a uniform band directed at the base of canes. Do not allow spray to come in contact with crop.
  • Apply a single spray in a minimum water volume of 100L/ha (40L/acre).
  • Apply to crops that have been established for one full growing season and are in good health and vigor.
  • At least 0.5 cm of rainfall or irrigation is necessary to activate the herbicide.
  • Do not apply in any type of soils with more than 6% organic matter.
  • Do not apply after petal fall unless a shielded sprayer is used.
  • Do not tank mix with Chateau herbicides (flumioxazin) or with other products containing sulfentrazone.
  • Do not apply within 3 days of harvest
Post-emergence Prism SG (25% rimsulfuron) 60 g/ha (24 g/acre)
  • Apply a directed, early postemergence spray to actively growing weeds.
  • Minimize contact with raspberry plants.
  • Use on crops that have gone through at least one growing season and are in good health and vigour
  • Use a non-ionic surfactant such as Cittowett Plus, Agral 90 or Ag-Surf at 2 L/1000 L of spray mix.
  • When applied as a banded treatment, Prism may be applied twice per year.
  • Do not apply within 21 days of harvest. 
Annual Weeds

Aim EC

(240 g/L carfentrazone -ethyl)

37 to 117 mL/ha

(15 to 47 mL/acre)
  • Apply between the rows with a hooded sprayer to emerged weeds. Crop injury will occur if drift is allowed to come in contact with green stem tissue, leaves, blooms or fruit.
  • To improve control, apply with surfactants such Agral 90 or Ag-Surf at 0.25% (0.25 L/100 L of water) or Merge at 1% (1 L/100 L of water).
  • Do not apply within 15 days of harvest.
Annual Grasses and Broadleaf Weeds Alion (200 g/L indaziflam) 375 mL/ha (150 mL/acre)
  • Apply as directed spray to the soil either under dormant canes prior to bud break and new cane emergence, or after mowing but prior to new cane emergence.
  • Only use in plantings established for at least one year and exhibiting normal growth and good vigour
  • Do not apply prior to any soil disturbance
  • Apply a maximum of one application per season
  • Do not apply within 14 days of harvest
Annual Grasses and Broadleaf Weeds AXXE (36% Ammonium Salt of Fatty Acid  45 to 106 L/ha (18 to 42 L/ac) 
  • Bioherbicide for burndown of weeds
  • Adjust rate and water volume depending on height of weeds as specified on label
  • Use as a shielded spray application and do not allow spray to contact the crop
  • Do not apply within 2 hours of rainfall or irrigation
  • Can also be applied prior to weed emergence
Annual Grasses and Quackgrass Venture L
(fluazifop-p- butyl)
1.2 to 2.0 L/ha
(480 to 800 mL/acre)
  • Apply as per Venture L above.
  • Apply in the spring before bloom or in the Fall. 
  • Do not apply within 30 days of harvest.
  • Warning: Women capable of bearing children should avoid exposure to Venture L.
Annual Grasses and Quackgrass Poast Ultra(sethoxydim) 0.47 to 1.1 L/ha
(200 to 440 mL/acre)
  • Apply at the 1 to 6 leaf stage of annual grasses and to actively growing quackgrass that has 1 to 6 leaves.
  • Use the high rate for quackgrass control.
  • Apply with the adjuvant, Merge, at a rate of 1% of water volume used.
  • Do not apply within 37 days of harvest.

Note: Herbicide application rates are listed on pesticide labels and in the production guide for broadcast or total field coverage. If spraying a band over the row area only, then the treated area is only a portion of the whole field and rates must be reduced accordingly.  

 

Raspberry Insect & Mite Management

When using insecticides select ones that have the least impact on beneficial insects whenever possible. Refer to “Pesticide toxicity to beneficial insects” in the General Pest section. Most insecticides are toxic to bees. Avoid applying insecticides during the blossom period. If it is absolutely necessary to apply them during this period, notify beekeepers in the area. Evening applications are less dangerous than daytime applications.

Growers who mechanically harvest may need to apply a pre-harvest “clean-up” spray to control weevils, caterpillars and other insects which can become contaminants in harvested fruit. See weevil and caterpillar control below for control recommendations.

 

Hosts

Attacks red raspberry, loganberry, and blackberry.

Damage

Aphids rarely do any direct damage to raspberries but are a concern as carriers of virus diseases and contaminants in machine harvested fruit. They are a periodic problem on the Meeker and other susceptible varieties.

Identification

The raspberry aphid and a few other species attack raspberries. Aphids are found in colonies on new shoot growth, buds, undersides of leaves, and near flower and fruit clusters. Adult aphids are small (2 to 3 mm) and vary in colour from pale yellow, green, to red. As colonies become crowded, winged forms appear. The immature stages resemble small wingless adults.

Drawing of an aphid

Life History

Aphids overwinter as eggs on plants. Under coastal conditions eggs hatch about May. The nymphs feed on blossoms, then growing shoots and leaves. There are several generations during the spring and summer. In the fall, winged forms disperse and lay eggs on the overwintering host plants.

Monitoring

Early detection is important for effective, economical control. Inspect growing tips weekly from before bloom to harvest. Inspect several sites, especially in the upwind margins of the planting where wind blown aphids are most likely to occur.

Management

Biological Control

Aphids are often controlled by a number of native predators and parasites including ladybugs, lacewings, and syrphid larvae. If chemicals are needed for other pests, pesticides that will have the least impact on the beneficial insects should be used. Refer to “Pesticide toxicity to beneficial insects” in the Berry Production Guide: Pest Management (PDF).

Resistant Varieties

B.C. varieties such as Chemainus, Malahat and Rudi have been selected for aphid resistance. However, in recent years resistance-breaking strains of the raspberry aphid have been detected in B.C.

Chemical Control

Usually natural enemies and/or pesticides applied to control other pests like fruitworm, caterpillars and weevils will minimize aphid problems on raspberries. However, if a separate spray becomes necessary, there are a number of chemicals registered for use against aphids on raspberries.

Apply:

Admire 240F or Alias 240SC (240 g/L imidacloprid) at 175 mL/ha (70 mL/acre) as a foliar spray in enough water to obtain good coverage. Do not apply more than 3 times per season. If multiple applications are necessary, allow at least 7 days between sprays. Do not apply within 4 days of harvest; or

Note: Admire and Alias are toxic to bees. Do not apply immediately pre-bloom or during bloom when bees are actively foraging.

Assail 70WP (70% acetamiprid) at  56 to 86 g/ha (22 to 34 g/acre) in enough water to obtain good coverage. Use the higher rate when pest pressure is heavy.  Do not apply more than once every 7 days.  Do not apply more than 4 times per season. Do not apply within 1 day of harvest; or 

Note: Assail is toxic to bees. Do not apply during bloom when bees are actively foraging. 

Movento 240SC (240 g/L spirotetramat) at 220-365 mL/ha (88-146 mL/ac) in a minimum of 300 L/ha (120 L/ac) of water.  Apply post-bloom.  Do not apply more than once every 7 days.  Do not apply more than 3 times per season. Do not apply within 3 days of harvest; or

PyGanic EC1.4 (1.4 % pyrethrins) at 2.32 to 4.65 L/ha (0.93 to 1.86 L/acre) in enough water to ensure complete coverage of all plant surfaces. Apply promptly after mixing. Do not reapply within 7 days. Do not apply more than 8 times per season. It may be applied up to the day of harvest. It is OMRI approved for organic production.

Sivanto Prime (200g/L flupyradifurone) at 500-750 ml/ha (196-295 ml/acre) in a minimum of 100 L/ha (40 L/acre) of water as a directed foliar spray. Do not apply more than once every 7 days. Do not exceed 2000 ml/ha (787 ml/acre) per season. Do not apply within 0 days of harvest.

Hosts

All cane fruit.

Damage

This is seldom a serious pest. Maggots inside the cane girdle the shoots causing them to wilt and die from the point of girdling.

Identification

The adult is a small fly that is rarely noticed. The maggot is creamy white and reaches about 0.5 cm in length.

Life History

There is one generation a year. The maggot overwinters in the shoot. In the spring it pupates and turns into an adult fly. The fly lays a single egg on unopened leaves at the tip of a new shoot. The egg hatches within a week, and the resulting maggot bores about 15 cm down inside the shoot, then turns outward and girdles it, leaving a bluish ring. The shoot droops at this point, then shrivels and dries up.

Monitoring

Watch for wilted shoots—they are the only reliable indication of this pest.

Management

Cultural Control

Break off and burn or bury wilting shoots.

Chemical Control

No sprays are needed.

Hosts

All berry crops are subject to attack by one or more caterpillar species.

Damage

Caterpillars may reduce plant health and yield by feeding on foliage, buds and fruit, but usually the damage is not significant. They can also be a contamination problem at harvest, especially the oblique banded leafroller.

Identification

There are more than 25 species of caterpillars that may attack raspberry plants at some time during the growing season. Only a few of them are major pests. In recent years, the oblique banded leafroller has been the major early season pest. This is a pale to medium green worm with a brown to black head. It grows to about 2.5 cm (1 in) and wiggles rapidly if disturbed.Other early season caterpillar pests are Bruce’s spanworm, dusky leafroller, European leafroller, strawberry tortrix (also a leafroller) and Herpetogramma pertextalis, for which there is no common name. Climbing cutworms such as variegated cutworm, Bertha armyworm, brown fruitworm, speckled green fruitworm, and alfalfa looper may also be early and mid season pests.

Drawing of a caterpillar

Life History

Oblique banded leafrollers overwinter as young larvae, often between canes. They begin feeding on new leaves and buds, and rolling leaves, in April. This feeding does not usually cause significant damage to the plants. The caterpillars feed until late May or early June, then pupate and emerge as moths. The moths mate and lay eggs on leaves and canes. The second generation leafrollers that hatch from these eggs can contaminate harvested berries in July and August.

Variegated cutworms may be present as the buds begin to swell and break in late March to early April, when they start feeding on the buds and new growth.

Monitoring

It is helpful to work with an integrated pest management (IPM) consultant when monitoring for caterpillar pests. Monitor for caterpillars by looking for feeding damage on the shoot tips and rolled leaves, starting in April. Check 4 to 5 well-distributed sites in each field.

At each site, select 20 plants to inspect. Keep records of date, field, and location for each inspection. Monitor every two weeks in April and May. Control sprays may be advisable when leafrollers are present on 10% of the inspected plants. Start watching for cutworms in late March to early April. They are active at night so are best detected in the evening by placing a beating tray under the foliage and shaking the plant gently.

Management

Biological Control

Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Bt or Btk) is a soil bacteria that kills leafroller and spanworm caterpillars when they eat it. Caterpillars stop feeding within hours and die within a couple of days. See recommendations under “Chemical Control”.

Trichogramma

Trichogramma minutum is a tiny wasp which searches for eggs of caterpillar pests and lays its own eggs in them. Inside the pest egg, the immature wasp kills the developing caterpillar and feeds on it for 10-14 days before it emerges, mates and begins searching for more pest eggs. These tiny parasitoids are produced commercially and have been under investigation for several years for control of Oblique banded leafroller (the most prevalent contaminant) in raspberry.

Although there are a number of species available commercially, the most efficient species for leafroller is Trichogramma minutum, which can reduce numbers of caterpillars in canes at harvest by 70%. This is often sufficient to put the field below a spray threshold for a caterpillar clean-up spray.

Field experience indicates that climbing cutworms (bertha armyworm) are also controlled by T. minutum if the moths are flying in June when the T. minutum are released.

T. minutum must be present in field from the first pheromone trap catch of oblique banded leafroller moths until the moth flight is complete (3 to 5 weeks, June to early July). T. minutum should be applied on a weekly basis either by setting out T. minutum-parastized eggs on cards in a grid at designated sites or by broadcast application at a rate of 25 female wasps/m2 (100,000 female wasps/acre).

Setting out parasitized eggs on cards is more labour intensive, but parasitoid survival should be better than broadcast application. For broadcast application, a “bug-blower” is mounted on the back of an all-terrain vehicle. It distributes T. minutum by puffing out a mixture of parasitized-eggs and fine vermiculite into an air and water stream every 3 m. This service is provided by custom applicators in the Fraser Valley and has been used successfully on several raspberry farms.

This technique is best used within an IPM program using the services of a pest management consultant. Contact BCAGRI for further information.

Chemical Control

Use one of the following:

Capture 240 EC (240 g/L bifenthrin) at 467 mL/ha (187 mL/acre) in enough water to obtain good coverage of foliage. One application may be made before bloom  and a second application may be made after bloom and before harvest. Do not make applications less that 30 days apart. Do not apply during bloom. Do not apply within 3 days of harvest; or

Delegate WG (25% spinetoram) at 100 to 200 g/ha (40 to 80 g/acre) at egg hatch or to small larvae. Use the higher rate for high populations and/or larger larvae. Reapply if necessary. Delegate is toxic to bees - do not apply when bees are actively foraging. Do not apply more than 3 times per year. Allow a re-treatment interval of at least 5 days. Do not apply within 1 day of harvest; or

Intrepid 240F (240 g/L methoxyfenozide) at 0.5 to 0.75 L/ha (0.2 to 0.3 L/acre). Monitor and time applications for egg hatch or when larvae are small. Use the higher rate under heavy insect pressure or when larvae are large. For leafrollers, apply before larvae roll up in leaves. Do not apply more than 3 times per year. Do not apply within 3 days of harvest; or 

Success 480SC (480 g/L spinosad) at 145 to 182 mL/ha (58 to 73 mL/acre) in 300 to 500 L/ha of water. Use the upper rate under high insect pressure and/or on large larvae. Apply a maximum of 3 times per year and do not apply within 3 days of harvest; or

Entrust 80W (80% spinosad) at 80 to 109 g/ha (32 to 44 g/acre) or Entrust SC (240 g/L spinosad) at 267 to 364 mL/ha (107 to 146 mL/acre) in 300 to 500 L/ha of water. Use the upper rate under high insect pressure and/or on large larvae. Apply a maximum of 3 times per year and do not apply within 3 days of harvest. It is OMRI approved for organic production; or

DiPel WP (Bacillus thuringiensis) at 1.1 to 2.25 kg/ha (440 to 900 g/acre) or DiPel 2XDF  at 525 to 1125 g/ha (210 to 450 g/acre) or Foray 48BA  at 1.4 to 2.8 L/ha (0.56 to 1.1 L/acre); or Bioprotec CAF  at 1.4 to 2.8 L/ha (0.6 to 1.1 L/acre). For all Bt formulations, thorough coverage is essential for good control. Use up to 2000 L/ha (800 L/acre) of water. Best control is obtained when daytime high temperatures are above 18oC. Can be applied up to the day of harvest; or

Harvanta (50 g/L cyclaniliprole) at 1200 to 1600 mL/ha (480-640 mL/acre) in a spray volume of 935 to 1400 L/ha (374-560 L/acre) of water. This product will provide suppression only. This product is toxic to bees - do not apply during the blossom period. Minimum re-treatment interval is 5 days. Do not apply more than two times consecutively within 30 days or more than two times within a single generation of the pest.  Do not apply more than 3 times per season or a maximum of 4.8 L/ha (1.92 L/acre). Do not apply within 1 day of harvest; or

Sevin XLR Plus (466 g/L carbaryl) at 5.25 L/ha (2.1 L/acre). Use 1000 to 2000 L/ha spray volume.  Sevin is toxic to bees - do not apply during the blossom period. Do not apply within 11 days of harvest

Hosts

This insect affects all cane fruits including raspberry, Himalaya and cutleaf blackberry, loganberry, boysenberry, thimble berry and salmonberry.

Damage

Larvae girdle new canes causing galls at the base. These weakened canes often break off during tying in the spring. Large larvae tunnel in the fleshy part of the root, further reducing the vigour of canes.

Identification

The day flying adult is a clear-winged moth resembling a yellow jacket wasp in color and size. The larvae are white with brown heads and are found in tunnels inside the cane or root.

Drawing of a crown borer

Life History

This insect has a two year life cycle. The eggs are laid in August and September on the undersides of leaves near the edges. The young larvae crawl down the canes and spend the first winter in a cell on the cane near the soil. The next spring they become active and start to girdle the new canes.

Later they bore into the base of the cane and cause swellings at or below the soil surface. They spend the second winter in the tunnels and feed from spring until June or July when they pupate. Adult moths emerge beginning in late July.

Monitoring

Watch for canes that break off when tying up in the spring. If more than 5% of the plants have hollow canes, caused by borer larvae feeding, chemical controls are recommended.

Management

Cultural Control

Immediately after harvest or when setting canes on the wires, prune out loose canes and those with galls at the base. Cut back close to the crown.

Chemical Control

If a treatment is needed (5% of canes infested), consider chemical control.

Altacor (35% chlorantraniliprole) at 215 to 285 g/ha (86 to 114 g/acre) as a basal spray in enough water to ensure good coverage of primocanes. Apply in late summer or early fall to first-instar larvae when they are actively feeding in the cambium, before they tunnel into the crown or canes. Use the high rate when pest pressure is heavy. Do not apply more than 3 times per season. Do not apply more than once every 14 days. Do not apply within 3 days of harvest.

Hosts

Blackberry, raspberry, loganberry

Damage

Unopened leaves on primocanes and fruiting laterals turn black and fail to open or become distorted, twisted, kinked, or creased as they attempt to expand.

Identification

Small, milky coloured legless larvae, 1 mm wide and 2-3 mm long, are found within unopened leaves. Several can be present in an infested bud. Adults are small delicate flies which are rarely seen.

Life Cycle

Adults emerge in the spring and lay eggs in unopened leaves. Larvae feed within the growing tips for about four weeks, and then drop to the soil to pupate. New adults emerge and lay eggs. There appears to be approximately three overlapping generations per year in south western B.C. Larvae can be observed from mid May through late August. In late summer larvae drop to the soil and overwinter as mature larvae or pupae.

Monitoring

Look for damage on growing tips of primocanes and fruiting laterals in early May and through the summer. Damage on opening leaves can be seen all season, and tends to build up and spread through the field with each successive generation.

Management

It is not likely that this pest will reach levels high enough to affect yield as leaf midge is considered a minor pest in Europe. However, it is relatively new to B.C., and may have differing impacts on crops here. If midge is present in fields it should be monitored each year to determine if population and subsequent damage is increasing.

Cultural Control

There are no known naturally occurring biological control agents for leaf midge.

Chemical Control

There are no chemicals specifically registered for midge, however, broad-spectrum insecticides used for raspberry fruit worm, leafhoppers or leafrollers may give some control of leaf midge. Midges are generally difficult to control with pesticides because the larvae are protected by leaves and the generations are overlapping.

Hosts

Raspberry, loganberry, and blackberry.

Damage

The adult beetles cause some reduction in yield by feeding on unfolding leaves and blossom clusters. The larvae feed within flowers and then burrow between the core and the flesh of the berries. They can be a serious contamination problem at harvest.

Identification

The small (2 to 3 mm), yellowish-brown beetles of the western raspberry fruitworm are somewhat flattened and covered with short hairs. Larvae are pale yellow, 3 to 4 mm long, and have short legs.

Life History

Adult beetles overwinter in the soil, emerging from late April to early May. They feed on new leaves, blossoms and berries, and lay eggs which hatch into whitish-yellow larvae. These enter the blossoms and young berries, some feeding until harvest. Most larvae mature, leave the berry and drop to the ground where they enter the soil and pupate. Adults form in late summer and overwinter.

Monitoring

Watch for damage to unfolding leaves and developing flower buds. A beating tray can be used to monitor adult fruitworm activity before and during bloom. Work in Washington has shown that beetles are attracted to non-ultraviolet white sticky traps.

Traps such as the Rebell R Bianco are effective for monitoring beetle flight activity. Locate traps along field edges near adjacent raspberry fields or areas of alternate Rubus hosts (e.g. blackberry, thimbleberry). However, there are no threshold levels established for determining if sprays are required.

Management

Chemical Control

The best time to control this insect is just prior to bloom and before it begins to lay eggs. Spray when blossom bud clusters separate and again if required just prior to blossom opening with:

Malathion 25W (25% malathion) at 4 to 5 kg/1000 L of water. Spray for thorough coverage. Do not apply within 1 day of harvest.

Note: Malathion must be applied at temperatures 20°C and above to be effective.

Hosts

Red raspberry, blackberry, loganberry, boysenberry and thimbleberry.

Damage

Leafhoppers are not usually a serious pest except on blackberry and loganberry. Both nymphs and adults feed on the underside of leaves. They suck sap from the leaves, causing whitish spots on the upper surfaces. Heavy infestations result in mottled leaves which can wither and curl in hot weather. Plants lack vigour, and the berries can be small and often sticky from honeydew secreted by the leafhoppers. A black mould can develop on the honeydew.

Identification

The nymphs are small, pale white and quick moving when disturbed. Adults are slender and about 3 mm long with folded wings. They vary in colour from pale white to brownish-green.

Drawing of a leafhopper

Life History

There are two generations each year. Most of the population overwinters as eggs laid under the bark of the canes. First generation nymphs hatch in early May and feed for three or four weeks on the undersides of leaves before becoming winged adults. These adults lay eggs in the leaves and petioles from late June until early September.

Second generation nymphs appear in late July and early August, and mature in late August and early September. These adults lay the overwintering eggs.

Monitoring

Watch for nymphs on underside of leaves, beginning in early May.

Management

Chemical Control

If necessary, apply:

Assail 70WP (70% acetamiprid) at  56 to 86 g/ha (22 to 34 g/acre) in enough water to obtain good coverage. Use the higher rate when pest pressure is heavy.  Do not apply more than once every 7 days.  Do not apply more than 4 times per season. Do not apply within 1 day of harvest; or 

Note: Assail is toxic to bees. Do not apply during bloom when bees are actively foraging. 

Malathion 25W (25% malathion) at 4 to 5 kg/1000 L of water. Spray for thorough coverage. Do not apply within 1 day of harvest; or

Malthion 85E (85% malathion) at 880 mL/ha (352 mL/acre). Spray for thorough coverage. Repeat as necessary. Do not apply within 1 day of harvest; or Malathion 500 E (500 g/L malathion) at 1.8 L/ha (0.72 L/acre). Spray for thorough coverage. Do not apply within 1 day of harvest; or

Malathion 50EC (50% malathion) at 2 to 2.5 L/ha (0.8 to 1 L/acre). Spray for thorough coverage. Do not apply within 1 day of harvest; or

Note: Malathion must be applied when the temperature is 20 C or higher to be effective.

Success 480SC (480 g/L spinosad) at 145 to 182 mL/ha (58 to 73 mL/acre) in 300 to 500 L/ha of water. Use the hhigher rate under high insect pressure and/or on large larvae. Apply a maximum of 3 times per year and do apply within 3 days of harvest; or

PyGanic EC1.4 (1.4 % pyrethrins) at 2.32 to 4.65 L/ha (0.93 to 1.86 L/acre) in enough water to ensure complete coverage of all plant surfaces. Apply promptly after mixing. Do not reapply within 7 days. Do not apply more than 8 times per season. It may be applied up to the day of harvest. It is OMRI approved for organic production.

 

Hosts

Mainly raspberry, most cane fruit.

Damage

Sawflies occur sporadically and are seldom a serious pest. Vigorous raspberry plants are not seriously damaged by sawfly larvae unless they are in outbreak numbers. Larvae feed on the leaves, usually between the veins, causing large elongated holes or even completely skeletonized leaves.

Identification

Adults are sawflies which are thick-waisted wasps with four clear wings. They are about 6 mm long, black with yellow and reddish markings. Larvae are pale green caterpillars with many legs and grow to about 13 mm long.

Life History

Mature larvae overwinter in a cocoon in the soil. These pupate in the spring and adult sawflies appear in May and June. They lay their eggs within the leaf tissue. Larvae feed on leaves throughout the summer, even into November. Mature larvae drop to the ground where they bury themselves and spin cocoons in which they overwinter.

Management

Treatment is the same as for leafhoppers or fruitworms.

Hosts

Berries, stone fruits and numerous wild hosts

Damage

Female flies lay eggs under the skin of ripe fruit shortly before harvest. Larvae hatch and begin to feed within the fruit, causing softening in the area of feeding. There can be several larvae in a fruit, which hastens softening and fruit collapse. Holes the size of pin pricks are evident within the soft areas of infested blueberries.

Identification

Adults: 2-3 mm (1/8 inch) long, brownish with red eyes and clear fly-like wings. Males have a black/grey spot on the end of each wing, as well as two black ‘combs’ or bands on each front leg. The females do not have spots or leg bands. Females have saw-like egg-laying organs (ovipositors) that are used to cut into fruit skin. Ovipositors are easier to see when extended. A hand-lens or dissecting microscope is needed to identify ovipositor.

Eggs

0.6 mm long, oval, white, 2 filaments at one end.

Larvae

Legless, headless, up to 6 mm long at maturity, milky-white.

Pupa

3 mm long, brown, football-shaped, two stalks with small finger-like projections on ends.

Life History

Spotted Wing Drosophila overwinter as adult flies. In spring flies become active and lay eggs in ripening fruit. Based on climate model predictions, there could be up to five generations per year in B.C. Generations overlap as flies are relatively long-lived particularly at temperatures of 20°C and cooler.

Based on Japanese literature, a female can lay eggs for 10-59 days, with 7-16 eggs laid per day, and average 384 eggs per female. Eggs hatch in 2-72 hours, larvae mature in 3-13 days, and pupae reside in fruit or outside of fruit for 3-15 days. In the lab at constant temperature, one generation takes 50 days at 12°C, 21-25 days at 15°C, 19 days at 18°C, 8.5 days at 25°C, and 7 days at 28°C. Adults are attracted to and feed on ripe and decaying fruit.

Monitoring

Flies can be monitored with cup-like traps baited with apple cider vinegar. Place traps when the temperature is consistently over 10°C and/or before fruit starts to ripen. Hang traps in the plant canopy in a shady location. Check traps once per week and look for the Spotted Wing Drosophila adults in the bait solution. Use a hand lens or other magnifier to see the female ovipositor. Replace the bait solution each week. Suspect fruit can also be collected and inspected for larvae.

Management

Cultural Control

Where practical, remove or bury cull fruit to eliminate additional feeding and breeding sites. Keep equipment and processing areas free of old fruit. Think beyond the borders of your farm and be aware of host plants in adjacent fields. Encourage neighbours to also manage for Spotted Wing Drosophila. Shorten picking interval where possible: pick early, clean and often.

Biological Control

To date, there are no commercially available biological controls for Spotted Wing Drosophila. Research is underway to identify potential predators and/or parasites that may be useful in managing Spotted Wing Drosophila.

Chemical Control

Chemical control will be required if trapping shows that adult Spotted Wing Drosophila flies are present in the field when berries begin to ripen. Adults are the target and are killed by direct spray contact and/or when they are exposed to residues of insecticide on the treated fruit and leaves.

Consider the following when planning a spray program:

  • All of the recommended products are toxic to bees. Avoid application when crops are blooming and bees are in the field. If sprays are necessary during this time, they should be applied at night
  • Use enough water and pressure to ensure adequate coverage (up to 500 L/ha of water). Flies prefer to feed in the lower, shaded part of the canopy
  • Use spray equipment that will allow effective coverage. Currently, no products are registered for aerial application
  • To limit development of resistance, rotate between the recommended products
  • A 7 – 14 day spray interval may be necessary to protect fruit through the ripening period depending on temperature and pest pressure
  • A post-harvest spray may be necessary to prevent flies from building up on residual fruit and spreading to adjacent later ripening crops

The following products are registered for Spotted Wing Drosophila control:

Delegate WG (25% spinetoram) at 315 to 420 g/ha (126 to 168 g/acre). Do not apply more than 3 times per year. Allow a re-treatment interval of at least 7 days. Do not apply within 1 day of harvest.

Entrust SC (240 g/L spinosad) at 333 to 444 mL/ha (133 to 178 mL/acre). Minimum re-treatment interval is 5 days. It is OMRI approved for organic production. Do not apply more than 3 times per year and do not apply with 1 day of harvest.

Success (480g/L spinosad) at 165 to 220mL/ha (66 to 88 mL/acre). Minimum re-treatment interval is 5 days. Do not apply more than 3 times per year and do not apply within 1 day of harvest.

Exirel (100 g/L cyantraniliprole) at 1000 to 1500 mL/ha (400 to 600 mL/acre) in enough water to obtain good coverage. Do not apply more than 4 times per season or a maximum of 4.5 L/ha (1.8 L/acre). Allow a re-application interval of at least 5 days. Do not apply within 1 day of harvest; or

Harvanta (50 g/L cyclaniliprole) at 1200 to 1600 mL/ha (480-640 mL/acre) in a spray volume of 935 to 1400 L/ha (374-560 L/acre) of water. Minimum re-treatment interval is 5 days. Do not apply more than two times consecutively within 30 days or more than two times within a single generation of the pest.  Do not apply more than 3 times per season or a maximum of 4.8 L/ha (1.92 L/acre). Do not apply within 1 day of harvest; or

Malathion 85E (85% malathion) at 975 mL/1000 L water. Use up to 1000 L/ha (400 L/ac) of water. Apply when the temperature is 20°C or more. Do not apply more than 2 times per year. Do not apply within 1 day of harvest; or

Mako EC (407 g/L cypermethrin) at 150 to 175 mL/ha (60 to 70 mL/acre) in enough water to obtain good coverage. Do not apply more than 3 times per season.  Allow a minimum of 7 days between treatments. Do not apply within 2 days of harvest; or

UP-Cyde 2.5 EC (250 g/L cypermethrin) at 245 to 285 mL/ha (98 to 114 mL/acre) in sufficient water for thorough coverage. Do not apply more than 3 times per season.  Allow a minimum of 7 days between treatments. Do not apply within 2 days of harvest.

Hosts

All raspberry varieties are susceptible to mite infestations.

Damage

Two-spotted spider mites cause damage to the leaves, particularly during prolonged warm periods. They usually feed on the lower leaf surface, resulting in a whitish flecking on the upper surface. Heavy infestations can result in leaves drying up and dropping off.

Identification

Two-spotted spider mites are very tiny. From April to October, they are pale yellow to green, and females have two large black spots on the back and sides of the body. Orange overwintering females appear in late September and October. Fine silk webbing is typically present on the underside of the leaves infested with mites.

Drawing of a two-spotted spider mite

Life History

In March, the spider mites begin feeding and egg-laying on the newly emerging leaves. Eggs hatch in one to two weeks and the immature mites become reproductive adults in another one to three weeks.

Mites develop faster at higher temperatures so more generations occur and numbers may increase rapidly in hot weather, particularly if native predators have been eliminated by broad-spectrum insecticides.

Monitoring

Start inspecting leaves for spider mites and mite predators in early May. Sample at least every two weeks during May and June. White speckling is a sign of mite feeding. Turn over leaves with these symptoms and examine for mites and mite predators. Use a 10 X power hand lens. Sample from four well-distributed sites per field and inspecting 10 leaflets at each site.

Keep records of the date, field area and sampling results for each inspection. Include spider mites and mite predators. No threshold levels are established for applying control sprays; however, strawberry thresholds provide some guidelines (see Strawberry section in this guide). Field history and ratio of predators to pest mites needs to be considered.

Have a knowledgeable person help identify the beneficial mites and two-spotted mites.

Management

Biological Control

The relatively lesser effect of mites on raspberries than on strawberries means that greater reliance can be placed on natural controls such as predatory mites (Amblyseius fallacis) and beetles (Stethorus punctillum). If these biological control agents are present in sufficient numbers, they should adequately control spider mites.

If predators are not present due to sprays or because the planting is new, Amblyseius and Stethorus can be purchased and introduced. Preliminary tests show that a minimum of 7,000 Amblyseius/acre should be released. Apply higher rates on fields with a history of high spider mite populations. Release predators in new fields when leaves are growing and touching between the canes.

To decrease the number of predators required, they can be released into the mite "hotspots," instead of applied to the whole field.

Contact your crop consultant, supplier or BCAGRI for details on releasing biological control agents.

Chemical Control

Alternate between the recommended products below to prevent mite resistance from developing.

Apollo SC (500 g/L clofentezine) at 500 mL/ha in 500 to 1000 L of water/ha (0.2 L/acre in 200 to 400 L of water/acre) using ground equipment. Apply at the first sign of mite activity. Apollo acts only against eggs and very young larval stages (motiles). The older immatures and adults are not killed. Most predatory mites will survive. Do not make more than one application of Apollo per season. Do not apply within 15 days of harvest; or

Note: Apollo is not acceptable for some markets. Check with your packer before using.

Acramite 50WS (50% bifenazate) at 851 g/ha (340 g/acre) in a minimum of 500 L/ha (200 L/acre) of water and with enough pressure to ensure coverage on both sides of the leaves. Apply when mite populations begin to build. Do not apply more than once per season. For resistance management, rotate the use of Acramite and other Group 25 miticides with products from different groups. Do not apply within 1 day of harvest; or

Note: Acramite is not acceptable for some markets. Check with your packer before using

Kanemite 15 SC (15.8 % acequinocyl) at 2.07 L/ha (0.83 L/acre) in enough water and pressure to ensure good coverage on both sides of the leaves. Apply when mite populations begin to build. For resistance management, rotate the use of Kanemite and other Group 20B miticides with products from different groups. Allow a minimum 21 days between applications. Do not apply within 1 day of harvest; or

Agri-mek SC (84 g/L abamectin) at 225 mL/ha (90 mL/acre) with 0.1-0.5% v/v non ionic surfactant in at least 375 L/ha (150 L/acre) of water. Make the first application when mites first appear. Allow 7-10 days between applications. Do not apply more than two times post-harvest. 

Pyramite 75 WP or Nexter (75% pyridaben) at 300 to 600 g/ha (120 to 240 g/acre) in 1000 L/ha (400 L/acre) of water when mites first appear. Do not apply more than twice per season. Apply post-harvest only.

Oberon (240 g/L spiromesifen) at 0.88 to 1.16 L/ha (350 to 460 mL/acre) with adequate pressure and in enough water to obtain good coverage on both sides of the leaves. Apply when mite populations begin to build. Oberon is most effective against the egg and nymph stages of mites. Do not apply more than 3 times per season. Do not re-enter fields within 3 days of application. Do not apply within 3 days of harvest.

 

Hosts

All raspberry varieties, blueberries, strawberries, woody ornamentals.

Damage

Raspberries adjacent to strawberries or wooded areas may be damaged by root weevils. The main damage is caused very early in the spring by adult clay coloured weevils feeding on the unopened buds. Damage is often mistaken for winter injury. Adult black vine weevils and obscure weevils which emerge in June can be serious contaminants in machine-harvested fruit. The larvae (grubs) feed on the roots and weaken cane growth.

Identification

Adults of the clay coloured weevil and other species feed on raspberry buds in the early spring. All species are similar in habits and appearance. Larvae are white, legless, “C”– shaped grubs which feed on the roots during most of the summer and winter. Adults are flightless, hard-shelled, and have long, downward curved shouts and elbowed antennae.

 

Drawing of a weevil

Life History

Adults start to emerge from the soil in the early spring and most have emerged by mid-June. The adults climb the canes at night to feed on the buds and new laterals.

Because they are flightless, they spread relatively slowly in a raspberry field. Eggs are laid by mid-July and hatch into grubs that feed on the roots through the fall, winter and spring. There is one generation per year.

Monitoring

Start inspecting the canes in March for signs of damage to the buds and new laterals (leaf flagging and notching) caused by clay coloured weevils. Adult weevils feed at night and usually return to the trash at the base of the plant in the day. Weevils may stay in the foliage on cool, cloudy days especially if the foliage is dense. Adult weevils can be detected in the evening by placing a beating tray under the foliage and shaking the plant gently. Monitor for black vine weevils and obscure weevils in June and July in the same fashion. Record weevil numbers for each inspection.

Management

Biological Control

Ground beetles (Carabids) feed on weevil grubs, pupae and adults. The contribution they make to control has not been determined, but they should be encouraged.

Chemical Control

Weevil sprays can kill predatory mites resulting in increased two-spotted mite populations. If sprays are applied, monitor for mites and be prepared to control if necessary.

Make sure that the damage is caused by weevils as buds can be damaged from other factors such as frost. Check with a crop consultant or the BCAGRI, if uncertain.

Apply insecticide sprays for adult weevils before egg laying starts. For clay coloured weevils spray in early spring when damage to buds and new shoots is first observed. For black vine and obscure weevils, sprays should be applied after weevil emergence in June just before first harvest.

Apply sprays in the evening, after a warm, sunny day. Under these conditions, the weevils will be active and moving up the canes to the foliage and will be exposed to and killed by foliar sprays.

The following products are registered for adult weevil control:

Capture 240 EC (240 g/L bifenthrin) at 467 mL/ha (187 mL/acre) in enough water to obtain good coverage of foliage. One application may be made before bloom for clay coloured weevils and a second application may be made after bloom and before harvest for control of black vine and other weevil species. Do not make applications less that 30 days apart.  Do not apply during bloom. Do not apply within 3 days of harvest; or

Actara 25WG (25% thiamethoxam) at 210 to 280 g/ha (84 to 112 g/acre) in sufficient water to obtain coverage of foliage. Apply when adult weevils or weevil damage is detected. Repeat application if insect populations rebuild. Allow at least 7 days between treatments. Use the higher rate for heavy infestations. Do not apply more than twice per season. Do not apply within 3 days of harvest; or

Note: Actara is higly toxic to bees exposed to direct treatment or to residues on blooming crops. Do not apply if bees are visiting the treated area. After an Actara application wait at least 5 days before placing bee hives in the field.

Malathion 85 E (85% malathion) at 1.35 L/ha (0.5 L/acre). Spray for thorough coverage. Do not apply within 1 day of harvest.

Note: Malathion must be applied when the temperature is 20°C or higher to be effective. Malathion is a direct contact insecticide–the spray must hit the weevils to be effective.

Exirel (100 g/L cyantraniliprole) at 1000 to 1500 mL/ha (400 to 600 mL/acre) in enough water to obtain good coverage. Do not apply more than 4 times per season or a maximum of 4.5 L/ha (1.8 L/acre). Apply when most of adult weevils have emerged before they begin to lay eggs.  Allow at least 5 days between treatments. Do not apply within 1 day of harvest. 

Damage

Wireworms bore into raspberry crowns and destroy them. In heavy infestations, they feed on established plants and greatly reduce the yield, and weaken the plants. Wireworms are seldom a problem, but can cause heavy plant losses to raspberry plantings following sod.

Drawing of wireworms

Identification

Yellowish-brown, shiny, slender, hard-bodied worms 5 to 25 mm long.

Management

Plan for control in field preparation for new plantings. For information on controlling wireworms, refer to “General Berry Pests” in this guide.

 

 

Other Raspberry Pests

Damage

These are occasionally a pest on raspberries and may be a contaminant when harvesting in wet conditions.

Identification

Slugs are slow-moving, soft-bodied, slimy, legless creatures. They are black, grey, brown or olive green in colour, and do not have a shell. Slugs are 3 to 4 mm when hatched and grow to 10 cm in length. Snails have a protective shell. The shell can be up to 2 cm in diameter and usually has alternating yellow and brown concentric rings.

Drawing of a slug

Drawing of a snail

Management

Cultural Control

Control weeds and keep cover crops mowed as tall grasses and weeds provide protection and may attract these pests.

Chemical Control

If present in large numbers, control snails or slugs in the spring before they climb into the plants. When the pests are active and conditions dry, apply in the evening at the base of plants or to the headlands.

Sluggo or Ferramol (0.76% ferric phosphate) slug and snail bait at 25 to 50 kg/ha (10 to 20 kg/acre) scattered by hand or granular applicator between the rows and near the base of the plants when slugs are detected. Apply the highest rate if infestation is severe. Re-apply at least every two weeks if slugs and snails continue to be a problem. Do not place in piles.

Note: ferric phosphate is not harmful to pets, birds or wildlife.

 

Raspberry Disease Management

Damage

This disease may cause considerable cane damage in some years, especially if weather remains wet into late spring. Infections that occur early in the season are more damaging than those that occur later. Uneven berry ripening may result from infected canes.

Symptoms

The first symptom is small, purplish circular patches on the cane. As the patches enlarge, the central portion takes on a greyish colour and becomes sunken and cracked. Margins become raised and purplish. The damaged patches are often so close together that they merge, forming large, irregular areas. Canes can eventually become girdled and die.

Disease Cycle

Anthracnose is caused by a fungus. The disease spreads by spores produced in the small black bodies which form in the grey patches in the fall. In the spring, splashing rain carries the spores to new shoots, leaves or fruit, where infection takes place.

Monitoring

Watch for sunken grey areas with purple raised margins on canes during late spring. The cane is most commonly infected from 15 to 75 cm above the ground. Prune out infected canes.

Management

Cultural Control

Cultural practices usually give adequate control.

Avoid thick plantings.

Do not apply excessive nitrogen.

Prune out surplus canes during the growing season and old canes after harvest.

Resistant red raspberry varieties include Willamette, Nootka, Meeker and Heritage.

Biological Control

None.

Chemical Control

Where anthracnose has been a problem, apply:

Bordeaux Mixture (8-8-100). Apply from late dormant to delayed dormant (green-tip) stage. See General Pests section for details on mixing; or

Ferbam 76 WDG (76% Ferbam) at 3.75 kg/ha (1.5 kg/acre) as a delayed dormant spray. Apply in enough water for thorough coverage of all plant parts. Make a second application using 2.0 to 2.5 kg in 1000 L of water when the canes are 25 to 30 cm tall, a third spray just before bloom, and a fourth spray immediately after harvest. Do not apply to flowers or fruit; or

Note: Ferbam is not acceptable for some markets. Check with your packer before using.

Pristine WG (25.2 % boscalid, 12.8 % pyraclostrobin) at 1.3 to 1.6 kg/ha (0.52 to 0.64 kg/acre) in enough water to obtain good coverage. Apply beginning at early bloom. Spray in rotation with other fungicides on a 7 to 14 day schedule. Use the shorter interval when disease pressure is high. Do not apply more than 4 times per crop per season. Do not apply Pristine or other products containing Group 7 or 11 fungicides more than twice in succession. Do not re-enter treated fields for hand harvesting within 24 hours of application. Do not re-enter fields for all other activities until residues have dried. If mechanical harvesting, application can be made up to the day of harvest; or

Tanos 50 DF (25% famoxadone, 25% cymoxanil) at 840 g/ha (335 g/acre) in sufficient water volume to ensure thorough coverage of the crop. Do not apply more than 3 times per year. At least 12 days must pass between the first and second applications.  At least 24 days must pass between the second and third applications.  Do not re-enter fields within 9 days of application.  Do not apply within 9 days of harvest; or

Lime sulfur, used to control spur blight, cane blight and yellow rust, will also control Anthracnose.

Damage

This bacterial disease is seldom a problem but can occasionally cause severe losses.

Symptoms

Bacterial blight can occur at two periods during the year. In the spring, blight symptoms appear as a sudden wilting and blackening of new shoots, cane tips, laterals and leaves. Affected laterals have a distinct “crooking” or downward bend. This type of damage is often associated with temperatures just above 0°C and is usually not a problem after mid-May.

The most serious phase of the disease is believed to occur in the fall in fields that are actively growing later than normal. These fields seem to be susceptible to infection which shows as dead buds and black streaking of the cambium layer under the bark. This damage is usually not noticed until spring and can be confused with injury due to spur blight or winter injury.

Disease Cycle

The bacterium survives on leaf surfaces, in healthy buds and on weeds. It may be spread by splashing rain, wind, insects and infected planting stock.

Monitoring

Check developing laterals and young shoots for symptoms. Where fall conditions may have promoted the development of blight, inspect buds for damage. Look for black streaking under the bark near the buds.

Management

Cultural Control

Avoid late growth due to excessive soil nitrogen, summer drought followed by resumption of growth with fall rains, or topping of canes too early in the fall.

Biological Control

None

Chemical Control

Spring Infection

If needed, apply:

Bordeaux Mixture (8-8-100). Apply one spray at the delayed dormant/bud-bursting stage. Apply a second spray in the fall before rains start. Thoroughly wet the canes. See General Pest Section for mixing directions; or

Copper Spray Fungicide or Copper Oxychloride 50 (50% copper oxychloride) at 2.0 kg in 1000 L of water per ha (0.8 kg in 400 L of water/acre). Begin protection at the bud-bursting stage. Apply in fast drying conditions to minimize the risk of plant damage. Repeat at 14-day intervals until three sprays have been applied. Thoroughly wet canes at each treatment. Do not re-enter treated fields within 48 hours of application. Do not apply within 2 days of harvest.

Caution: Do not use bluestone or copper sulphate alone as it washes off readily and may cause plant injury. Copper tolerant strains of this bacterium have been detected from blueberry.

Fall–winter Infection

No satisfactory chemical control for the fall-winter infection period has been determined. The following may be beneficial:

Bordeaux Mixture (8-8-100). Apply spray before fall rains start (about October). Thoroughly wet the canes and apply in fast drying conditions. See General Pest Section for mixing directions; or

Copper Spray Fungicide or Copper Oxychloride 50 (50% copper oxychloride) at 2.5 kg/1000 L of water/ha (1 kg/acre in 400 L of water); or

Cueva (Copper octanoate 1.8%) Use a 0.5% to 2% solution, applied at 470-940 L/ha (188-377 L/acre). Apply at the start of flowering and continue every 7 to 10 days. Do not apply within 1 day of harvest, or

Serenade Opti (QST 713 strain-Bacillus subtilis) at 0.6 to 1.7 kg/ha (0.24 to 0.68 kg/acre). Apply before fall rains and again during dormancy before spring. Serenade may be applied up to and including the day of harvest.

Note: Serenade is a bacterial-based biofungicide. It is approved for organic production.

Serenade Max: no longer produced

Damage

Botrytis cane wilt can be very destructive during wet seasons and in plantings where the growth is lush and dense.

Symptoms

Infections first appear as brown blotches on the new green canes. The blotches, which may include one or more nodes, become tan coloured as infected canes mature. A typical concentric ring pattern appears in late winter.

Disease Cycle

The fungus overwinters in dead leaves, mummified fruit and as black fungal bodies called sclerotia. Numerous sclerotia form on diseased canes during the late fall and winter. It also overwinters on weeds. In the early spring under humid conditions, sclerotia produce spores which infect succulent new growth. Infected new canes wilt and die. Dead canes are pithy and may be covered with grey mould. Botrytis also causes blossom blight and fruit rot.

Monitoring

Examine canes in the spring to determine the level of overwintering fungus and plan a control program accordingly.

Management

Cultural Control

Improve air circulation by controlling weeds.

Remove surplus new shoots as they develop to prevent the rows from becoming too dense.

Prune out the old canes immediately after harvest to increase air circulation.

Prune out diseased new canes as soon as observed, and destroy to reduce inoculum.

Meeker and Willamette show resistance to Botrytis cane wilt. Chemainus and Cascade Bounty are highly susceptible.

Biological Control

None.

Chemical Control

Fruit rot sprays help control this disease.

Damage

Cane blight can weaken fruiting canes but this fungal disease is usually of minor importance. It enters new canes through wounds so there is greater potential for damage where mechanical harvesters are used.

Symptoms

Early cane blight infections may resemble spur blight. However, cane blight usually covers the whole stem and is not confined to the leaf node areas as with spur blight. During the late summer, infected canes turn greyish and may be confused with winter injury or anthracnose. The infected areas on the cane become flattened and may crack open. During the next season, laterals on infected canes wilt and die in warm weather.

Disease Cycle

The cane blight fungus overwinters on cane stubs. The old, dead canes can produce spores for several years. Rain and overhead irrigation will spread spores in splashing water. Infection may occur at any time during the growing season, but often occurs at harvest when canes are wounded. Moist conditions are required for infection.

Monitoring

Monitor new canes after harvest. Scrape away the bark above or below wounds and look for reddish streaking. During the dormant season, examine old cane stubs for grey, flattened, cracked areas, especially at catch plate height.

Management

Cultural Control

Cut out and destroy infected canes.

Adjust the tension of the catch plates of mechanical harvesters to reduce wounding.

Top canes during dry weather, if possible.

Avoid high nitrogen levels as tall, succulent cane growth is more susceptible to injury.

Biological Control

None.

Chemical Control

Lime-sulfur (23% calcium polysulphide) at 35 L in 1000 L of water. Apply in sufficient water for thorough coverage of all plant parts. Apply at the delayed dormant (bud-bursting) stage if a spray program is necessary. If leaves are out, spray only when they are dry to avoid damage.

Damage

Crown gall poses a serious threat to the production of susceptible raspberry varieties. If infected planting stock is used, yield can be significantly reduced.

Symptoms

The first symptoms are usually woody swellings or galls on the crowns or canes at ground level. These galls range from the size of a pea to the size of a tennis ball. Root infections may go undetected until galls are so numerous that the vigour of the plant is affected. In some plantings where the disease has become established, the fruiting canes produce short, weak laterals. The leaves turn yellow and dry at the edges and curl up with the onset of warm weather. Root systems from these dying plants resemble a string of beads because of the frequency of galls.

Disease Cycle

The crown gall bacterium is present in some fields. It can also be introduced on infected planting stock. Once introduced into the field, the bacteria survive almost indefinitely in decaying root galls or in alternate hosts. Wounds resulting from insect injury and cultivation or mechanical harvester damage encourage new infections.

Monitoring

Carefully check planting stock for the presence of galls. In existing plantings, look near the crown, for evidence of galls or dig plants up to examine roots for galls.

Management

Cultural Control

Use certified raspberry plants. Never use plants from sources where crown gall has been reported. Do not use plants containing visible galls. Where only a few plants in a field are infected, entire plants (including the complete root system) should be removed carefully and burned.

Take care when removing canes and pruning because the bacteria can be spread on the pruning shears.
Disinfect pruning shears by dipping in 5% Virkon, Chemprocide or CleanGrow, or a 1:10 dilution of household bleach. Caution: bleach is corrosive to metal blades.

Minimize root and cane injury by controlling root weevils and nematodes, avoiding close cultivation and making sure that catch plates on mechanical harvesters are working properly.
Field experience has shown that Meeker does not develop galls. Saanich and Chemainus are susceptible.

Biological Control

Dygall is a formulation of a naturally occurring bacterium that is antagonistic (i.e. kills) to the crown gall bacterium. It is applied to cuttings or plant roots before planting in infested soils. It is to be used by trained nursery personnel only.

Chemical Control

None.

Damage

The fungus Botrytis causes rot and yield loss. Losses will likely occur each year if fungicides are not applied to protect the blossoms and developing fruits. Losses are most severe when weather is wet through harvest.

Symptoms

Infected flowers turn brown and shrivel when they dry. Under moist conditions, grey tufts of fungus can be seen on blighted blossoms. Botrytis-infected berries become shrivelled and covered with the grey tufts when the fruit matures. Fruit can appear healthy at harvest but develop rot soon after. This is the post-harvest rot phase.

Disease Cycle

The fungus primarily enters through the blossom and develops slowly until the fruit ripens. Then rot develops rapidly. Healthy fruit next to infected berries can develop rot on the bush or after harvest.

Monitoring

Watch for cane infections in the spring. They may be an important source of spores for flower infection.

Management

Cultural Control

Train canes for an open canopy to promote good air circulation.

Avoid excessive nitrogen fertilization.

Time overhead irrigation so plants dry out as quickly as possible.

Keep fruit cool after harvest and deliver to the processor or packer as quickly as possible.

Biological Control

None.

Chemical Control

At least three sprays are recommended. Start when the blossoms first open and repeat at 7 to 10 day intervals.

To delay the development of resistance, alternate sprays from the different chemical groups.

Group M

Captan 80 WDG (80% captan) at 1.2 kg in 1000 L of water/ha (0.5 kg in 400 L/acre) depending on the label. Do not apply more often than every 7 days. Do not re-enter treated fields within 72 hours of application. Do not apply within 2 days of harvest; or

Maestro 80DF (80% captan) at 2.5 kg/ha (1.0 kg/acre). Do not apply more often than every 7 days. Do not re-enter treated fields within 72 hours of application unless protective clothing is worn. For hand harvesting, do not apply within 3 days of harvest. For machine harvest, do not apply within 2 days of harvest; or

Note: Leaf injury to the variety, Malahat, can occur with Maestro or Captan particularly when sprays are applied on a warm day following a period of wet weather; or

Group 1

Senator 70WP (70% thiophanate-methyl) at 1.1 kg/ha (0.44 kg/acre) during flowering and every 7-10 days as needed. Senator also provides powdery mildew control. Do not apply within 1 day of harvest; or

Group 2

Rovral (500 g/kg iprodione) at 2 kg/ha in 1000 L of water per ha (0.8 kg/acre in 400 L/acre of water). To reduce the possibility of disease resistance to Rovral, alternate applications with Captan. Do not apply within 1 day of harvest; or

Group 7

Cantus WDG (70% boscalid) at 560 g/ha (224 g/acre) in enough water to obtain good coverage. Apply beginning at early bloom. Spray in rotation with other fungicides on a 7 to 14 day schedule. Use the shorter interval when disease pressure is high. Do not apply more than 4 times per crop per season. Do not apply Lance, Cantus or other Group 7 fungicides more than twice in succession. Lance or Cantus can be applied up to the day of harvest; or

Luna Privilege (500 g/L fluopyram) at 500 mL/ha (200 mL/acre).  Apply beginning at early bloom and continue on a 7 to 10 day interval. Do not apply more than 2 applications per season for Botrytis or a maximum of 500 g/ha (200 g/acre) of fluopyram per year.  Do not apply Group 7 fungicides more than twice in succession. Luna Privilege will also provide control of powdery mildew. Can be applied up to the day of harvest; or

Sercadis (300 g/L fluxapyroxad) at 250-666 mL/ha (100-266 mL/acre) in enough water to obtain good coverage.  Apply beginning at early bloom, prior to onset of disease development. Spray in rotation with fungicides from other groups on a 7 to 14 day schedule.  Use the shorter spray interval when disease pressure is high. Do not apply more than 3 times per crop season. Can be applied up until the day of harvest; or

Note: Sercadis will only provide suppression of Botrytis 

Kenja 400 SC (400 g/L isofetamid) at 0.99 to 1.24 L/ha (400 to 500 mL/ac). Begin applications prior to disease development and continue on a 7 to 14 day interval. When disease pressure is high use the highest rate and the shortest interval. Do not make more than two sequential applications of group 7 fungicides. Do not apply more than 3 times per year. Do not apply within 7 days of harvest; or

Group 7/9

Luna Tranquility (125 g/L fluopyram, 375 g/L pyrimethanil) at 1200 ml/ha (486 ml/acre) in a minimum of 500 L/ha (202 L/acre) of water. Begin applications in early bloom or when conditions are conducive to Botrytis and repeat as required at 7 to 10 day intervals.  Do not apply more than twice per crop per season for Botrytis.  Can be applied up until the day of harvest; or

Group 7/11

Pristine WG (25.2 % boscalid, 12.8 % pyraclostrobin) at 1.3 to 1.6 kg/ha (0.52 to 0.64 kg/acre) in enough water to obtain good coverage. Apply beginning at early bloom. Spray in rotation with other fungicides on a 7 to 14 day schedule. Use the shorter interval when disease pressure is high. Do not apply more than 4 times per crop per season. Do not apply Pristine or other products containing Group 7 or 11 fungicides more than twice in succession. Do not re-enter treated fields for hand harvesting or hand pruning within 24 hours of application. If mechanical harvesting, application can be made up to the day of harvest; or

Group 9

Scala (400g/L pyrimethanil) at 2.0 l/ha (0.78 l/acre) in a minimum spray volume of 1000 l/ha (393 l/acre). Make the first application at early flowering and repeat applications as required at 7-10 day intervals. Do not apply more than 2 times per crop per season.  Application can be made up to the day of harvest; or

Group 9/12

Switch 62.5 WG (37.5% cyprodinil and 25% fludioxinil) at 775 to 975 g/ha (310 to 390 g/acre) in enough water to obtain good coverage (500 to 1000 L/ha (200 to 400 L/acre)). Apply when conditions are favourable for disease development. Do not apply Switch more than twice in succession. Alternate with fungicides from other groups. Do not apply within 1 day of harvest; or

Group 11/27

Tanos 50 DF (25% famoxadone, 25% cymoxanil) at 840 g/ha (335 g/acre) in sufficient water volume to ensure thorough coverage of the crop. Do not apply more than 3 times per year. At least 12 days must pass between the first and second applications.  At least 24 days must pass between the second and third applications.  Do not re-enter fields within 9 days of application.  Do not apply within 9 days of harvest;

Group 17

Elevate 50 WDG (50% fenhexamid) at 1.7 kg/ha (0.7 kg/acre) in enough water (up to 1000 L/ha) to obtain good coverage. Apply up to 4 times per season beginning at early bloom. Do not make more than two consecutive applications of Elevate. It should be alternated with fungicides from other groups to prevent development of resistance. Do not apply within 1 day of harvest; or

Group 19

Diplomat 5 SC (5% Polyoxin D zinc salt) at 463 to 926 mL/ha (185 to 370mL/acre) in enough water to obtain good coverage. Begin as a preventive application when conditions favour disease development and continue on a 7-10 day interval as needed to maintain suppression. Do not apply more than 150g a.i/ha per season or 12 months. Application can be made up to the day of harvest; or 

BioFungicides

Serenade Opti (QST 713 strain-Bacillus subtilis) at 1.7 to 3.3 kg/ha (0.68 to 1.32 kg/acre). Begin applications at the first sign of disease or when conditions favour disease development. Repeat as necessary on a 7-10 day interval. Serenade may be applied up to and including the day of harvest; or

Note: Serenade is a bacterial-based biofungicide. It is approved for organic production.

Serenade Max: no longer produced.

Timorex Gold (23.8% tea tree oil) at 1.5 to 2.0 L/ha (0.6 to 0.8 L/acre) in 400 to 1200 L/ha (160 to 480 L/acre) of water.  For preventative treatments, apply at 7 to 14 day intervals. Avoid spraying in the heat of the day or when temperatures are above 35ºC. Do not apply within 2 days of harvest.

Damage

In susceptible varieties this virus causes crumbly fruit resulting in quality and yield loss.

Symptoms

Crumbly fruit is the most common symptom in infected red raspberries; however, crumbly fruit can be caused by factors other than RBDV infection. Infected plants are neither bushy nor dwarfed, although stunting and shorter canes may be observed in some varieties.

Some varieties may also show leaf yellowing in the spring, but most commercially recommended varieties do not. The only way to confirm the presence of RBDV is to have leaf tissues tested in a laboratory (see “Monitoring”).

Disease Cycle

The virus is spread by pollen. Once infected with RBDV, plants are infected for life. The plants produce infected pollen that is spread to healthy plants.

Monitoring

Watch for leaf symptoms and crumbly fruit. Mark suspect bushes and have leaf samples tested at a laboratory.

Management

Cultural Control

Use certified planting stock.

The only method of controlling RBDV is by planting resistant varieties. Willamette, Nootka, and Chilcotin are resistant to infection. Meeker and other recommended varieties are susceptible.

If growing susceptible varieties, remove fruiting laterals from first year fields before bloom to delay infection.

Biological Control

None.

Chemical Control

None.

Damage

Infected plants may have reduced yield and vigour.

Symptoms

Infected plants of some varieties may show no symptoms other than reduced yield and vigour. Others may have leaf symptoms with mottling, yellowing, mosaic patterns, ringspots or curling. Some varieties can be severely dwarfed and may die as a result of the infection. Ringspot may also cause crumbly fruit.

Disease Cycle

The virus is spread by dagger nematodes (Xiphinema americanum) and possibly other related species. Weeds may be part of the cycle by supporting nematode populations and harbouring the virus.

Monitoring

Watch for leaf symptoms and crumbly fruit. Mark suspect bushes and have leaf samples tested at a laboratory. Test soil and roots for nematodes. See the “Nematodes” section for further details.

Management

Cultural Control

Test soil for nematodes and do not plant in fields infested with dagger nematodes (Xiphinema).

Use certified planting stock.

If working in an infested field, clean equipment before moving to uninfested fields.

Control weeds which may harbour the virus and nematodes.

Removing infected plants may not help control the virus where more than 5% of plants are infected. However, where there is a low level of infection, remove infected plants as well as the next 5 plants beyond those showing symptoms or testing positive.

Meeker and Willamette are susceptible.

Biological Control

None.

Chemical Control

None.

Damage

Damage can be severe, especially when susceptible varieties are grown, nematode populations are high, or where soils are wet for long periods.

Symptoms

Fruiting canes may suddenly wilt and die with the onset of warm weather. Plants may also be stunted and low yielding. Infected roots appear rotted and brown. The outer tissue can be sloughed off and few fibrous roots are present. Black or purplish lesions may develop up the new canes from the ground level. Frequently, new shoots develop from the healthier portions of the crown.

Disease Cycle

Root rot is caused by fungi and fungi-like organisms that act alone or as a complex. Some only infect plants that have been previously weakened by stress. They all survive in the soil for years, and begin new infections by invading fine roots. They grow through the root tissue and may grow into the plant crown and damage it.

Monitoring

During the winter, note poorly drained areas. Watch these areas for symptoms of root rot when the weather starts to warm up. After hot, dry periods, watch for wilting of fruiting canes.

Management

Cultural Control

Use root rot-free, certified plants and set them out in fertile, well-drained soils.

Plant on raised beds to provide a better-drained root zone.

Control nematodes as they can increase root rot losses.

Avoid applying high levels of nitrogen to plants infected with root rot.

Subsoil between the rows in October to improve drainage.

There are no completely resistant varieties. Cascade Bounty and Cascade Delight have shown good field tolerance. Malahat and Tulameen are particularly susceptible.

Research has shown that high levels of soil calcium can reduce infection and damage caused by Phytophthora root rot. This can be achieved by applying gypsum before planting, but more research is necessary to determine the reliability and feasibility of this technique.

Biological Control

None.

Chemical Control

Where control is necessary, apply:

Foliar Application

Aliette (80% fosetyl-Al) at 5.5 kg/ha in a minimum of 200 to 1000 L/ha of water (2.2 kg/acre in 80 to 400 L/acre of water). For spring applications, apply the first spray when there is 7 cm of new growth and again 3 to 4 weeks later. For fall applications apply when conditions favour disease development (high soil moisture and cool temperatures) and then repeat if necessary 3 to 4 weeks later. Make the last fall application at least 30 days before leaf drop. Do not make more than 4 applications per year - 2 in the spring and 2 in the fall. Aliette is systemic – the product will move down from the leaves to the roots. Do not apply within 60 days of harvest.

Phostrol (53.6% mono and dibasic sodium, potassium and ammonium phosphites) at 5.2 L/ha in a minimum of 400 L/ha of water (2.1 L/acre in 160 L/acre of water). For spring applications, apply the first spray when there is 7 cm of new growth and again 45 to 60 days later. For fall applications apply when conditions favour disease development (high soil moisture and cool temperatures) and then repeat if necessary 21 to 28 days later. Make the last fall application at least 30 days before leaf drop. Do not make more than 4 applications per year - 2 in the spring and 2 in the fall. Phostrol is systemic – the product will move down from the leaves to the roots. May be applied up to the day of harvest.

Soil Drench

New Plantings

Ridomil Gold 480SL or 480EC (480 g/L metalaxyl-M) at 37 mL per 100 m of row as a post-plant soil drench in a 1 m wide band centered over the row (If the row spacing is 10 feet use 0.5 L/acre). Apply again in the fall before November 30; or

Orondis (100 g/L Oxathiopiprolin) at 1.3 to 2.8 L/ha (0.5 to 1.1 L/acre). Directly apply to soil with a banded drench application at a minimun of 200 L/ha, continue on a 7-14 days interval. Follow by sprinkler or drip irrigation within 24 hours to adequately distribute the product to the root zone. Use 1-2 applications at 7-14 days apart in spring and 1-2 applications at 7-14 days apart during fall. Do not make more than 4 applications per year. Do not apply within 1 day of harvest, or

Torrent 400SC (400 g/L cyazofamid) at 0.25 L/ha in 1000 L/ha of water (101 ml/acre in 405 L/acre of water) as a soil drench. One application can be made in the fall and one application can be made in the spring. Do not use a surfactant with this drench.

Established Plantings

Ridomil Gold 480SL or 480EC (480 g/L metalaxyl-M) at 37 mL per 100 m of row as a soil drench in a 1 m wide band centered over the row (If the row spacing is 10 feet use 0.5 L/acre). Apply in late-October to cool, moist soils just prior to rains. Rain or irrigation are essential to wash Ridomil into the root zone as soon as possible after application. Do not apply to dry soils. Do not apply after November 30. Ridomil will control root rots caused by Phytophthora and Pythium but will have no effect on other root rot-causing fungi. Since there are frequently several root rot-causing fungi in the same field, control may not be complete; or

Orondis (100 g/L Oxathiapiprolin) at 1.3 to 2.8L/ha (0.5 to 1.1 L/acre). Directly apply to soil with a banded drench application at a minimum of 200L/ha, continue on a 7-14 day interval. Follow by sprinkler or drip irrigation within 24 hours to adequately distribute the product to the root zone. Use 1-2 applications at 7-14 days apart in spring and 1-2 applications at 7-14 days apart during fall. Do not make more than 4 applications per year.Do not apply within 1 day of harvest.

Torrent 400SC (400 g/L cyazofamid) at 0.25 L/ha in 1000 L/ha of water (101 ml/acre in 405 L/acre of water) as a soil drench. One application can be made in the fall and one application can be made in the spring. Do not use a surfactant with this drench. Do not apply within 90 days of harvest.

Damage

The fungus causing this disease can infect leaves, petioles (leaf stems) and canes. Fruiting laterals may be stunted and less vigorous.

Symptoms

Infections on leaves are wedge-shaped with a brown central area surrounded by a yellow band. Infections on the petioles are not noticeable, but they grow into the new canes in mid-summer forming dark brown spots surrounding buds. The infection (brown areas) can spread up and down so that large sections of the cane are totally infected. The buds surrounded by the brown areas are not infected directly, but are greatly weakened by toxins produced by the fungus. These weakened buds may die or, if they do leaf out in the spring, may produce weak fruiting laterals with small, yellow leaves which dry up early in the season.

Disease Cycle

The infected areas on the canes remain dark brown until early winter when they become silvery-grey in colour. Over winter, small black bodies containing spores develop under the bark. The spores are released by rain in the spring to start the cycle again. New canes can be infected when they are 20 to 25 cm tall.

Monitoring

From May to early July, monitor for wedge-shaped brown patches on leaves to obtain an indication of spur blight levels. In the summer, watch for brown lesions around buds on the canes. During the dormant season and early spring, check overwintering levels of the spur blight fungus by looking for cracked grey areas on the canes around buds.

Management

Cultural Control

Avoid excessive nitrogen fertilization.

After harvest, remove and destroy the old fruiting canes.

Biological Control

None.

Chemical Control

Lime-sulfur (23% calcium polysulphide) at 35 L in 1000 L of water. Apply in sufficient water for thorough coverage of all plant parts. Apply at the delayed dormant (green-tip) stage if a spray program becomes necessary. If leaves are out, spray only when they are dry to avoid damage; or

Tanos 50 DF (25% famoxadone, 25% cymoxanil) at 840 g/ha (335 g/acre) in sufficient water volume to ensure thorough coverage of the crop. Do not apply more than 3 times per year. At least 12 days must pass between the first and second applications.  At least 24 days must pass between the second and third applications.  Do not re-enter fields within 9 days of application.  Do not apply within 9 days of harvest;

Note: Tanos 50 DF contains a Group 11 and a Group 27 fungicide. To delay fungicide resistance do not apply Tanos or other Group 11 or Group 27 fungicides more than twice in succession. Alternate with fungicides from other groups.

Captan 80 WDG (80% captan) at 1.2 kg in 1000 L of water/ha (0.5 kg in 400 L/acre) depending on the label. Do not apply more often than every 7 days. Do not re-enter treated fields within 72 hours of application. Do not apply within 2 days of harvest.Other fruit rot sprays will also help to control spur blight.

Ferbam 76 WDG. Refer to “Anthracnose” for application information.

Note: Ferbam is not acceptable for all markets. Check with your packer before using.

Damage

Yellow rust can be a problem in wet growing seasons. This fungus can infect all succulent, above ground parts of the plant causing reduced vigour and yields.

Symptoms

Symptoms first appear as distinct yellow spots on the leaves. Later the lower leaves turn yellow and drop off. Infected canes develop lesions that become deep cankers and may break off during pruning. By autumn, black pustules form on the underside of infected leaves.

Disease Cycle

The fungus overwinters on old infected leaves and old cane stubs.

Monitoring

By late April, start watching the oldest leaves on developing laterals near the wire. Look for yellow pustules on the upper and lower leaf surface. Watch to determine when the pustules will begin to release spores and apply a fungicide to protect new growth.

Management

Cultural Control

Good sanitation is the most important control method for yellow rust. Prune out the old fruiting canes as soon as possible after harvest. Postpone tying canes until after the leaves drop. Rotovate to incorporate all infected leaves and canes in the early spring before the new leaves develop.

Biological Control

None.

Chemical Control

Lime-sulfur (23% calcium polysulphide) at 35 L in 1000 L of water. Apply in sufficient water for thorough coverage of all plant parts. Apply at the delayed dormant (green-tip) stage if a spray program becomes necessary. If leaves are out, spray only when they are dry to avoid damage.

Nova 40W (40% myclobutanil) at 175 g/ha (70 g/acre) in enough water to obtain good coverage. Begin application in the spring at the first sign of yellow rust pustules. Apply at 10 to 14 day intervals. Do not apply more than 3 times per season. Do not enter or allow worker entry into treated areas for 6 days for hand harvesting, training and tying or for 12 hours for all other activities. Do not apply within 6 days of harvest for hand harvested crops. Do not apply within 1 day of mechanical harvesting.

Topas 250E or Jade or Tilt (250 g/L propiconazole) at 500 mL/ha (200 mL/acre) or Mission 418 EC (418 g/L propiconazole) at 300 mL/ha (120 mL/acre) in enough water to obtain good coverage. Apply in the spring when the first yellow rust pustules are detected. Repeat 14 days later. Do not apply more than twice per season. Do not re-enter treated areas within 3 days of application. Do not apply within 30 days of harvest. This product has caused some stunting of fruiting laterals when applied in the spring. Meeker is particularly susceptible.

Ferbam 76 WDG. Refer to “Anthracnose” for application information.

Note: Ferbam is not acceptable to some markets. Check with your packer before using.

 

Raspberry Nematode Management

Drawing of a nematode

Damage

Nematodes are microscopic worms that live in the soil. When plant parasitic nematodes are present in large numbers, they cause stunting and reduce vigour of raspberries by feeding on the roots. Some nematodes (dagger) are capable of transmitting viruses such as tomato ringspot. Damage usually occurs in patches in fields.

Monitoring

Test fields for nematodes before planting and fumigate if necessary. Nematodes tend to be very spotty in their distribution in a field. Thus it is very difficult to collect a representative soil sample. For this reason, careful sampling is of extreme importance if harmful nematodes are to be detected. Refer to “Nematodes” in “General Berry Pests” of this guide, for more information on sampling.

Management

New Plantings

Raspberry plants are most susceptible to nematode damage during the year of planting. If high populations are present, control with pre-plant fumigation is necessary to allow good establishment in the first year.

New fields are best sampled for nematodes in the spring or summer before the year of planting. This allows adequate time to prepare the land for fumigation in late August or September, if necessary. Organic matter reduces effectiveness of most fumigants. Therefore, if manures are to be used, apply in spring prior to planting.

Details of soil sampling, field preparation, and fumigant application timing and method are given in the section “General Berry Pests” in this guide. Refer to this section when planning for nematode control.

If nematode damage is noticed in the year of planting, apply Vydate as recommended for established plantings.

Established Plantings

Cultural Control

Good weed control practices will help prevent nematodes from building up in established plantings.

Chemical Control

Apply:

Vydate L (24% oxamyl) at 9.35 L/ha (3.8 L/acre) as a soil drench in a 1m wide band centred on the row. The drench should only be applied to moist soils and should be followed with about 2 cm of irrigation to ensure that the Vydate is washed into the root zone. The drench may be applied any time between the end of harvest and the end of the growing season. Do not apply after October 31. Do not apply in the spring. Do not re-enter treated fields within 3 days of application. Apply only once per year.