Last updated on February 1, 2024

A "decline" is damage that is usually stand- to forest-level in distribution, usually of a single species but having no obvious cause. In B.C., several host species have been identified to be suffering from decline and with climate change, more species are expected to be affected. Declines are often linked to abiotic stress combined with a biotic damage agent but not all of them can be fully explained. 

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