Glossary of Mediation Terms
Adjudication - Adjudication includes any of the forms of dispute resolution in which the parties to the dispute present proofs and arguments to a neutral third party who has the power to deliver a binding decision, generally based on objective standards. The term subsumes arbitration and litigation.
Arbitration - Arbitration includes any of the forms of dispute resolution involving a mutually acceptable, neutral third party making a decision on the merits of the case, after an informal hearing which usually includes the presentation of evidence and oral argument. The process has four main variations (creating numerous permutations):
- Binding or non-binding
- Voluntary or compulsory
- Private, statute-authorized, court-annexed
- One arbitrator or a panel
Conciliation - Conciliation is an informal process in which a neutral third party is positioned between the parties to create a channel for communications, usually by conveying messages between parties where it is preferable that they do not meet face-to-face, to identify common ground and to eventually re-establish direct communications between the parties, and possibly achieve settlement.
Disclosure Court - Disclosure Court is a formalized process for resolving issues in criminal cases. It differs from the normal provincial court procedure for criminal matters in that it requires both the defence and Crown at the outset of the proceedings to examine issues in the criminal case and account for the decisions they make on the future conduct of that case.
Cases are selected for assignment to Disclosure Court by the Crown counsel who approves the charge. All indictable (serious) matters (e.g. break and enter, impaired driving causing bodily harm, or sexual assault) are sent for appearance in Disclosure Court.
Crown counsel ensures that defence receives disclosure of the Crown case at the earliest opportunity. In order for Disclosure Court to be effective, Crown counsel must ensure that they have all the available information from the police, and victims, and must review the case with a view to proposing dispositions or the resolution of potential issues to the defence counsel by the time of the accused’s first appearance in Disclosure Court.
Diversion - Diversion is a pre-court procedure where a Crown uses his or her discretion on a case by case basis not to prosecute an alleged offender. Instead the alleged offender is referred to an individual or agency (with or without the intervention of a probation officer) with the intent of establishing an agreement by which the prospective divertee undertakes to accept, and is given the opportunity to demonstrate, personal responsibility for the alleged offence.
Facilitation - The object of facilitation is to help a group improve its process for solving problems and making decisions so that it can achieve its goals and increase its overall effectiveness. Although dealing with conflict can be a significant part of facilitation, it is not always the primary focus. In addition, developmental facilitation seeks to help the group permanently improve its process for solving problems. By transferring the skills of the facilitator to the group, the group becomes less dependent on the facilitator.
Mediation - Mediation has some degree of intervention in a dispute or negotiation by an impartial, neutral third party who has no decision-making power. The third party informally assists disputing parties in voluntarily reaching their own mutually acceptable settlement of issues in dispute by structuring the negotiation, maintaining the channels of communication, articulating the interests of each party, identifying the issues and, on occasion, if appropriate, making recommendations on disputed issues. The process may involve counsel, but open communications between the parties as well as between their counsel is encouraged.
Negotiation - Negotiation is any form of communication, direct or indirect, whereby parties who have opposing interests discuss, without resort to arbitration or other judicial processes, the form of any joint action which they might take to manage and ultimately resolve the dispute between them.
Traditional Practices - In terms of this policy, traditional practices are those culturally-based methods which can utilize local community resources in the resolution of disputes within that community.
Victim/Offender Reconciliation Program (VORP) - VORP utilizes trained mediators to facilitate dialogue and reconciliation between victims and those who have committed crimes against them. The main purposes of VORP are to:
- Discuss the offence as well as the feelings, concerns, and consequences for both the victim and offender.
- Reach an appropriate and just agreement. This can include financial compensation, repairing damages, returning property, and apologizing for the harm done.
- Reach some degree of resolution and reconciliation. This is particularly important when the cases involve people in ongoing relationships.