Stand Level Biodiversity for Forest Managers Glossary

Explanation of Terms

the diversity of plants, animals and other living organisms in all their forms and levels of organization and includes the diversity of genes, species, ecosystems and the evolutionary and functional processes that link them.
Biogeoclimatic zone 
a geographic area having similar patterns of energy flow, vegetation, and soils because of a broadly homogeneous macroclimate.
Biological diversity 
The diversity of plants, animals, and other living organisms in all their forms and levels of organization, including genes, species, ecosystems, and the evolutionary and functional processes that link them. Biological diversity is the same as biodiversity.
Blue-listed species 
these are taxa (species and subspecies) that are considered sensitive or vulnerable and that could become eligible for the Red List (threatened or endangered) in the forseeable future (e.g., Marbled Murrelet, Fisher, Grizzly Bear). The Blue List also includes species that are generally suspected to be vulnerable, but for which information is too limited to allow designation in another category
Coarse filter 
an approach to protecting biological diversity that is ecosystem driven and relies on habitat representation and connectivity to maintain most species diversity and processes. This is usually used in conjunction with a fine filter approach.
Coarse Woody Debris (CWD) 
sound and rotting logs and stumps that provide habitat for plants, animals and insects, and a source of nutrients for soil development. Include material generally greater than 8-10 cm in diameter.
Fine filter 
is species or site driven and is designed, by describing very specific management actions, to protect those species and plant communities that are not adequately managed under the coarse filter approach.
Forest Ecosystem Network (FEN) 
a planned landscape zone that maintains or restores the natural connectivity within a landscape unit. A FEN consists of a variety of fully protected areas, sensitive areas, classified areas, and old-growth management areas.
a group of species with similar behaviours and similar ecological requirements (e.g., cavity-nesting ducks)
an area containing a stream where (a) the overall stream gradient is at least 25%, and (b) a reach of that stream, greater than 100 m long, has:  

  •  A side wall greater than 3 m  
  •  A side slope greater than 50%
  • A stream channel gradient greater than 20%

Identified wildlife 
those species at risk that the Deputy Minister, Water, Land & Air Protection (WLAP) or a person authorized by that deputy minister and the chief forester agree will be managed through a higher level plan, wildlife habitat area or general wildlife measure.
a watershed or series of similar and interacting watersheds, usually between 10,000 and 100,000 ha in size
Landscape Unit (LU) 
a planning area, up to 100,000 ha in size, based on topographic or geographic features such as a watershed or series of watersheds.
Mycorrhizal fungi 
literally means "fungus-root". Mycorrhizal fungi form symbiotic relationships with the rootlets of most tree and shrub species found in British Columbia forests. They facilitate the plant's absorption of nutrients and in turn receive energy from carbohydrates formed during plant photosynthesis.
Natural Disturbance Types (NDT) 
these are areas characterized by different natural disturbance agents (mostly wildfires, windstorms, and to a lesser extent, insects and landslides), and are defined by groupings of biogeoclimatic zones, subzones, and/or variants that have similar disturbance regimes. Five NDTs are recognized in British Columbia.
No-work Zone (NWZ) 
areas in which equipment and people are not allowed during forestry operations, usually for safety or ecological reasons.
Potential Natural Community (PNC) 
the plant community that would be established if succession were allowed to be completed without further human interference.
Red-listed species 
these are taxa that are considered for legal designation under the British Columbia Wildlife Act as endangered or threatened (e.g., Spotted Owl, White-headed Woodpecker, Keen's Long-eared Myotis). The Red List also includes the four species already designated as endangered (Sea Otter, Burrowing Owl, American White Pelican, and Vancouver Island Marmot).
an area of land adjacent to a stream, river, lake or wetland that contains vegetation that, due to the presence of water, is distinctly different from the vegetation of adjacent upland areas.  
Riparian Management Area (RMA) 
means an area of width (as determined in accordance with standards described in the Forest Practices Code Operational Planning Regulations) that is adjacent to a stream, wetland, or lake. The RMA consists of a riparian management zone (RMZ) and, depending on the riparian class of the stream, wetland or lake, a riparian reserve zone (RRZ). The riparian class is determined by the attributes of the stream, wetland or lake, as well as the adjacent terrestrial ecosystems. Attributes include channel width, fish presence, domestic water use, and gully status (stream gradient and sidewall slope). For detailed information on riparian management areas and related guidelines and practices, consult the Riparian Management Area Guidebook.
Seral stages 
any stage of development of an ecosystem from a disturbed, unvegetated state to a climax plant community.
Silviculture prescription (SP) 
an SP is an operational plan that details the management objectives, strategies and desired outcomes for a particular area of forest prior to harvesting.  

Silvicultural system 
a planned cycle of activities by which a forest stand or group of trees is harvested, regenerated and tended over time. Silvicultural systems used in British Columbia include clearcutting, seed tree, shelterwood, and selection. Each name reflects the type of stand structure created by harvesting, although each system can be modified to contain reserves for biological diversity or other management objectives (e.g., visual quality).
a standing dead tree
Stand level 
the level of forest management at which a relatively homogeneous land unit can be managed under a single prescription or set of treatments, to meet well-defined objectives (typically less than 100 ha in size).
Structural attributes 
components of a forest stand (including live and dead standing trees, canopy architecture, and downed woody debris) that together determine stand structure.
an artificially created wildlife tree at least 3 m in height, usually created with a mechanical feller buncher.
Wildlife tree 
defined in the Forest Practices Code of British Columbia Act Operational Planning Regulation as a tree or group of trees that are identified in an operational plan to provide present or future wildlife habitat.
Wildlife Tree Patch (WTP) 
an area specifically identified for the retention and recruitment of suitable wildlife trees. It can contain a single wildlife tree or many.