Biological Control Agents & Host Plants

Invasive plant species targeted in B.C. have been introduced from other continents, primarily Europe and Asia, and have no natural enemies to attack them and keep them under control. Biocontrol research and thereafter management efforts reunites these invasive plants with their natural enemies by importing agents, mainly insects, that feed on the plants from the native habitat. Release of biological control agents into British Columbia began in 1951 with the introduction of Chrysolina quadrigemina (Suffrain) and C. hyperici (Forster) to control St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.) [1]. As of February 2020, B.C. has records for 87 separate species, or 89 if strains of species are considered as separate biocontrol agents, having either been purposely introduced (72) or having found their way into the province (17) to target 38 invasive plants. Establishment of the purposely introduced species in B.C. is at 74%, which is higher than the average of about 60% reported for classical invasive plant biocontrol agents released elsewhere in the world [2], and even the average of 70% recorded for agents released in western Canada [1]. In few historic occasions, and in current rare circumstances, natural predators have been able to follow their hosts into new habitats. These adventive insects are described:

References

[1] De Clerck-Floate, R. and H. Cárcamo. 2011. Biocontrol Arthropods: New Denizens of Canada's Grassland Agroecosystems. In Arthropods of Canadian Grasslands (Volume 2): Inhabitants of a Changing Landscape. Edited by K. D. Floate. Biological Survey of Canada. pp. 291-321.

[2] McFadyen, R.E.C. 1998. Biological control of weeds. Annual Review of Entomology. 43:369-393.

The table below lists invasive plant species and their biological control agents.

 

Biocontrol Agents and Host Plants

Invasive Plant

Biocontrol Agent

Agent Type

First Reported / Released in B.C.

Released in BEC Zone

Positive Monitoring / Dispersal BEC Zone *

Collectability **

Black knapweed
Centaurea nigra

Larinus obtusus (PDF)

Seed feeding beetle (weevil)

Imported for other Centaurea species

None

CWH, CDF, IDF

Passive distribution

Bohemian knotweed
Fallopia bohemica
Aphalara itadori Sap-sucking psyllid 2014 ICH None Not established

Brown knapweed
Centaurea jacea

Urophora jaceana (PDF)

Seed feeding fly

1986

None

None

Not established

Bull thistle
Cirsium vulgare

Larinus carlinae (PDF)
(previously L. planus)

Seed feeding beetle (weevil)

Adventive: Approved for Canada thistle in 1988

None

BG, CDF, CWH, IDF

Mass

Bull thistle
Cirsium vulgare

Rhinocyllus conicus (PDF)

Seed feeding beetle (weevil)

Imported for Nodding thistle

IDF

BG, CDF, CWH, IDF, PP

Mass

Bull thistle
Cirsium vulgare

Trichosirocalus horridus (PDF)

Rosette/ root crown feeding beetle (weevil)

1991

CWH

None

Limited

Bull thistle
Cirsium vulgare

Urophora stylata (PDF)

Seedhead gall-producing fly

1973

BG, BWBS, CDF, CWH, ESSF, ICH, IDF, MS, PP, SBS

CDF, CWH, ICH, IDF, MS, PP, SBS

Mass

Burdock
Arctium minus

Metzneria lappella (PDF)

Seed feeding moth

Adventive

None

BD, IDF, MS, PP

No federal permit

Canada thistle
Cirsium arvense

Altica carduorum (PDF)

Foliar feeding beetle

1964

CDF, CWH, PP

None

Not established

Canada thistle
Cirsium arvense

Cassida rubignosa (PDF)

Foliar feeding beetle

Adventive

None

BG, CDF, CWH, ICH, IDF, MS, PP

No federal permit

Canada thistle
Cirsium arvense

Hadroplontus litura (PDF)
(previously Ceutorhynchus litura)

Stem feeding beetle (weevil)

1975

BG, CDF

CDF

Not available for general distribution

Canada thistle
Cirsium arvense

Larinus carlinae (PDF)
(previously L. planus)
Field guide

Seed feeding beetle (weevil)

Adventive; approved for release on Canada thistle in 1988

BG, BWBS, CDF, CWH, ESSF, ICH, IDF, MS, PP, SBS

BG, CDF, CWH, ICH, IDF, MS, PP, SBS

Mass

Canada thistle
Cirsium arvense

Puccinia punctiformis (PDF)

Leaf and stem rust (fungus)

Adventive

None

BG, CDH, CWF, IDF, SBS

No federal permit

Canada thistle
Cirsium arvense

Rhinocyllus conicus (PDF)

Seed feeding beetle (weevil)

Imported for Nodding thistle

BG, CWH, IDF, MS, SBS

CDF, CWH, IDF, MS

Passive distribution

Canada thistle
Cirsium arvense

Terellia ruficauda (PDF)

Seed feeding fly

Adventive: first report 1931

None

None

No federal permit

Canada thistle
Cirsium arvense

Urophora cardui (PDF)
Field guide

Stem gall-forming fly

1974

BG, BWBS, CDF, CWH, ICH, IDF, MS, PP, SBS

BG, BWBS, CDF, CWH, ICH, IDF, PP, SBS

Limited

Canada thistle
Cirsium arvense

Urophora stylata (PDF)
 

Seedhead gall-producing fly

Imported for bull thistle

None

IDF, SBS

Passive distribution

Cypress spurge
Euphorbia cyparissias

Aphthona flava (PDF)

Root feeding beetle (flea beetle)

Imported for leafy spurge

IDF

None

Limited

Dalmatian toadflax
Linaria dalmatica

Brachypterolus pulicarius (PDF)

Seed feeding beetle

Adventive

BWBS, PP

BG, IDF, PP

Mass

Dalmatian toadflax
Linaria dalmatica

Calophasia lunula (PDF)

Foliar feeding moth

1960s

BG, CWH, ICH, IDF, PP

ICH, IDF, MS, PP

Limited

Dalmatian toadflax
Linaria dalmatica

Eteobalea intermediella (PDF)

Root feeding moth

1991

BG

None

Not established

Dalmatian toadflax
Linaria dalmatica

Mecinus janthiniformis (PDF)
(previously identified as M. janthinus)
Field guide

Stem mining beetle (weevil)

1991

 

BG, CDF, CWH, ICH, IDF, MS, PP

Mass

Dalmatian toadflax
Linaria dalmatica

Rhinusa antirrhini (PDF)
(previously Gymnetron antirrhini Dalmatian toadflax strain)
Field guide

Seed feeding beetle (weevil)

1993

BG, IDF, MS, PP, SBS

BG, IDF, MS, PP

Mass

Dalmatian toadflax
Linaria dalmatica

Rhinusa linariae (PDF)
(previously Gymnetron linariae

Root feeding beetle (weevil)

1996

BG

None

Not available for general distribution

Dalmatian toadflax
Linaria dalmatica

Rhinusa neta (PDF)
(previously Gymnetron neta, R. netum)

Seed feeding beetle (weevil)

Adventive

IDF

BG, CWH, IDF, MS, PP

No federal permit

Diffuse knapweed
Centaurea diffusa

Agapeta zoegana (PDF)
Field guide

Root feeding moth

1982

BG, ICH, IDF, PP

BG, ICH, IDF, PP

Mass

Diffuse knapweed
Centaurea diffusa

Chaetorellia acrolophi (PDF)
 

Seed feeding fly

Imported for spotted knapweed

None

BG, ICH, PP

Not available for general distribution

Diffuse knapweed
Centaurea diffusa

Cyphocleonus achates (PDF)
Field guide

Root feeding beetle (weevil)

1987

BG, CDF, CWH, ICH, IDF, MS, PP

BG, CWH, ESSF, ICH, IDF, PP

Limited

Diffuse knapweed
Centaurea diffusa

Larinus minutus (PDF)
Field guide
 

Seed feeding beetle (weevil)

1991

BG, CDF, CWH, ICH, IDF, MS, PP

BG, CDF, CWH, ESSF, ICH, IDF, MS, PP

Mass

Diffuse knapweed
Centaurea diffusa

Larinus obtusus (PDF)
Field guide

Seed feeding beetle (weevil)

1993

BG, CWH, ICH, IDF, MS, PP

CDF, ICH, IDF

Mass

Diffuse knapweed
Centaurea diffusa

Metzneria paucipunctella (PDF)

Seed feeding moth

1981

None

BG

Limited

Diffuse knapweed
Centaurea diffusa

Pelochrista medullana (PDF)

Root feeding moth

1982

BG, IDF, PP

None

Not established

Diffuse knapweed
Centaurea diffusa

Pterolonche inspersa (PDF)

Root feeding moth

1986

BG, IDF, PP

BG, ICH, IDF, PP

Passive distribution

Diffuse knapweed
Centaurea diffusa

Puccinia jaceae (PDF)

Leaf and stem rust (fungus)

Adventive 1988

None

PP

No federal permit

Diffuse knapweed
Centaurea diffusa
Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (PDF) Root, leaf, stem fungus Naturally occurring IDF IDF No federal permit

Diffuse knapweed
Centaurea diffusa

Sphenoptera jugoslavica (PDF)

Root feeding beetle

1976

BG, CDF, ICH, IDF, PP

BG, CDF, ICH, IDF, PP

Mass

Diffuse knapweed
Centaurea diffusa

Subanguina picridis (PDF)

Gall forming nematode

1985

IDF

IDF

Not established

Diffuse knapweed
Centaurea diffusa

Urophora affinis (PDF)

Seed feeding fly

1970

ICH

BG, ICH, IDF, PP

Mass

Diffuse knapweed
Centaurea diffusa

Urophora quadrifasciata (PDF)

Seed feeding fly

1972

ICH

BG, CDF, PP

Mass

Field bindweed
Convolvulus arvensis

Aceria malherbae (PDF)
(previously A. convolvuli)

Leaf and bud galling mite

1992

BG, IDF, PP

BG, PP

Not available for general distribution

Field bindweed
Convolvulus arvensis

Charidotella sexpunctata bicolor (PDF)
(previously Metriona bicolor)

Foliar feeding beetle

1969 (B.C. lab study)

CWH

None

No federal permit/not established

Field bindweed
Convolvulus arvensis

Deloyala guttata (PDF)
(previously Chirida guttata)

Foliar feeding beetle

1969 (B.C. lab study)

CWH

None

Not established

Gorse
Ulex europaeus

Agonopterix nervosa (PDF)

Foliar feeding moth

Adventive

None

CDF

No federal permit

Hedge false bindweed
Calystegia sepium

Charidotella sexpunctata bicolor (PDF)
(previously Metriona bicolor)

Foliar feeding beetle

1971

CWH

CWH

No federal permit

Hedge false bindweed
Calystegia sepium

Deloyala guttata (PDF)
(previously Chirida guttata)

Foliar feeding beetle

1971

CWH

None

Not established

Hound's tongue
Cynoglossum officinale

Longitarsus quadriguttatus (PDF)

Root feeding flea beetle

1998

BG, IDF, PP

BG, IDF, PP

Not available for general distribution

Hound's tongue
Cynoglossum officinale

Mogulones crucifer (PDF)
(previously M. cruciger)

Field guide

Root feeding beetle (weevil)

1997

BG, ICH, IDF, MS, PP

BG, ICH, IDF, MS, PP

Mass

Japanese knotweed
Fallopia japonica
Aphalara itadori Sap-sucking psyllid 2014 ICH None Not established

Kingdevil hawkweed
Pilosella floribunda

Aulacidea subterminalis (PDF) Gall-forming wasp 2011 IDF IDF Not available for general distribution

Leafy spurge
Euphorbia esula

Aphthona cyparissiae (PDF)
(mix with A. nigriscutis)

Root feeding flea beetles

1989

BG, IDF, PP, SBS

BG, IDF, PP

Mass

Leafy spurge
Euphorbia esula

Aphthona czwalinae (PDF)
(mix with A. lacertosa)

Root feeding flea beetles

1995

BG, IDF, PP

IDF, PP

Not available for general distribution

Leafy spurge
Euphorbia esula

Aphthona flava (PDF)

Root feeding flea beetle

1990

BG, IDF, MS, PP

BG, IDF, PP

Limited

Leafy spurge
Euphorbia esula
Aphtona lacertosa (PDF)
(mix with A. czwalinae)
Root feeding flea beetle 1995 BG, IDF, PP IDF, PP Not available for general distribution

Leafy spurge
Euphorbia esula

Aphthona nigriscutis (PDF)

Root feeding flea beetle

1986

BG, IDF, PP, SBS

BG, IDF, PP, SBS

Mass

Leafy spurge
Euphorbia esula

Hyles euphorbiae (PDF)

Foliar feeding moth

1966

IDF

IDF, PP

Not available for general distribution

Leafy spurge
Euphorbia esula

Lobesia euphorbiana (PDF)

Leaf tying moth

1987

BG, IDF, PP

BG, IDF, PP

Not available for general distribution

Leafy spurge
Euphorbia esula

Minoa murinata (PDF)

Foliar feeding moth

1994

PP

None

Not established

Leafy spurge
Euphorbia esula

Spurgia esula (PDF)

Bud gall forming midge

1990

BG, IDF

None

Not established

Marsh plume thistle
Cirsium palustre

Rhinocyllus conicus (PDF)

Seed feeding beetle (weevil)

Imported for nodding thistle

ICH, SBS

ICH, SBS

Not available for general distribution

Marsh plume thistle
Cirsium palustre

Terelia ruficauda (PDF)

Seed feeding fly

Adventive

None

ICH

No federal permit

Marsh plume thistle
Cirsium palustre

Trichosirocalus horridus (PDF)

Rosette/root crown feeding beetle (weevil)

Imported for nodding thistle

ICH, SBS

None

Not established

Meadow hawkweed
Pilosella caespitosa
Cheilosia urbana (PDF) Root feeding hover fly 2018 ICH None Not available for general distribution

Meadow knapweed
Centaurea debeuxii

Agapeta zoegana (PDF)

Root feeding moth

Imported for other Centaurea species

CDF, CWH

IDF

Limited

Meadow knapweed
Centaurea debeuxii

Cyphocleonus achates (PDF)

Root feeding beetle (weevil)

Imported for other Centaurea species

CDF, CWH

None

Limited

Meadow knapweed
Centaurea debeuxii

Larinus obtusus (PDF)

Seed feeding beetle (weevil)

Imported for other Centaurea species

CDF, CWH, ICH

CDF, CWH, ICH, IDF

Mass

Meadow knapweed
Centaurea debeuxii

Metzneria paucinpunctella (PDF)

Seed feeding moth

Imported for other Centaurea species

None

ICH, IDF

Limited

Meadow knapweed
Centaurea debeuxii

Urophora affinis (PDF)

Seed feeding fly

Imported for other Centaurea species

None

CWH

Passive distribution

Meadow knapweed
Centaurea debeuxii

Urophora quadrifasciata (PDF)

Seed feeding fly

Imported for other Centaurea species

None

ICH, IDF

Passive distribution

Mouse-ear hawkweed
Pilosella officinarum

Aulacidea subterminalis (PDF) Gall forming wasp 2011 IDF IDF Not available for general distribution

Mullein
Verbascum thapsus L.

Rhinusa tetra (PDF)
(previously Gymnaetron tetrum)

Seed and foliar feeding weevil

Adventive

None

BD, ICH, IDF, PP

No federal permit

Nodding thistle
Carduus nutans

Cassida rubiginosa (PDF)

Foliar feeding beetle

Adventive

None

IDF

No federal permit

Nodding thistle
Carduus nutans

Larinus carlinae (PDF)
(previously L. planus)

Seed feeding beetle (weevil)

Adventive: approved for Canada thistle (1988)

None

IDF, PP

Mass

Nodding thistle
Carduus nutans

Puccinia carduorum (PDF)

Leaf and stem rust (fungus)

Adventive

None

BG, IDF

No federal permit

Nodding thistle
Carduus nutans

Rhinocyllus conicus (PDF)

Seed feeding beetle (weevil)

1979

BG, ESSF, ICH, IDF, PP

IDF, PP

Mass

Nodding thistle
Carduus nutans

Trichosirocalus horridus (PDF)

Rosette/root crown feeding beetle (weevil)

1979

BG, IDF, PP

BG, IDF, PP

Limited

Nodding thistle
Carduus nutans

Urophora solstitialis (PDF)

Seed feeding fly

1991

None

None

Not established

Orange hawkweed
Hieracium aurantiacum

Aulacidea subterminalis (PDF)

Gall forming wasp

2011

IDF

IDF

Not available for general distribution

Orange hawkweed
Hieracium aurantiacum

Cheilosia urbana (PDF)

Root feeding hover fly

2017

ICH

None

Not available for general distribution

Perennial sow thistle
Sonchus arvensis

Cystiphora sonchi (PDF)

Leaf gall forming fly

1984

SBS

None

Not established

Plumeless thistle
Carduus acanthoides

Cassida rubignosa (PDF)

Foliar feeding beetle

Adventive

None

BG, PP

No federal permit

Plumeless thistle
Carduus acanthoides

(previously L. planus)

Seed feeding beetle (weevil)

Adventive: approved on Canada thistle (1988)

None

ICH, IDF, PP

Mass

Plumeless thistle
Carduus acanthoides

Rhinocyllus conicus (PDF)

Seed feeding beetle (weevil)

Imported for nodding thistle

ICH, IDF

BG, ICH, IDF, PP

Mass

Plumeless thistle
Carduus acanthoides

Trichosirocalus horridus (PDF)

Rosette/ root crown feeding beetle (weevil)

1975

BG, IDF, PP

BG, ICH, IDF, PP

Limited

Plumeless thistle
Carduus acanthoides

Urophora solstitialis (PDF)

Seed feeding fly

1991

ICH

None

Not established

Puncturevine
Tribulus terrestris

Microlarinus lareynii (PDF)
(mix with M. lypriformis)

Seed feeding beetles (weevils)

1986

BG

None

Not established

Purple loosestrife
Lythrum salicaria

Galerucella calmariensis (PDF)

Foliar feeding beetle

1993

BG, CDF, CWH, ICH, IDF, PP, SBPS, SBS

BG, CDF, CWH, ICH, PP, SBS

Mass

Purple loosestrife
Lythrum salicaria

Galerucella pusilla (PDF)

Foliar feeding beetle

1994

BG, CWH, PP

BG, CWH, PP

Mass

Purple loosestrife
Lythrum salicaria

Galerucella calmariensis (PDF)
(mix with G. pusilla)

Foliar feeding beetle

1995

CDF

CDF

Mass

Purple loosestrife
Lythrum salicaria

Hylobius transversovittatus (PDF)

Root feeding beetle (weevil)

1994

CDF

CDF

Not available for general distribution

Rush skeletonweed
Chondrilla juncea
Aceria chondrillae (PDF)
(previously Eriophyes chondrillae)
Gall forming mite 1993 ICH, IDF ICH, IDF Mass

Rush skeletonweed
Chondrilla juncea

Bradyrrhoa gilveolella (PDF)

Root feeding moth

2007

IDF

None

Not established

Rush skeletonweed
Chondrilla juncea

Puccinia chondrillina (PDF)

Leaf and stem rust (fungus)

Adventive

IDF

ICH, IDF

No federal permit

Russian knapweed
Acroptilon repens

Puccinia acroptili (PDF)

Leaf and stem rust (fungus)

Adventive

BG, PP

BG, PP

No federal permit

Russian knapweed
Acroptilon repens
 
Aulacidea acroptilonica (PDF) Gall forming wasp 2015 BG, PP PP Not available for general distribution

Russian knapweed
Acroptilon repens

Subanguina picridis (PDF)

Gall forming nematode

1985

BG, PP

None

Not established

Scentless chamomile
Tripleurospermum perforatum (previously Matricaria perforata)

Microplontus edentulus (PDF)

Stem mining beetle (weevil)

1997

BWBS, IDF

BWBS

Not available for general distribution

Scentless chamomile
Tripleurospermum perforatum (previously Matricaria perforata)

Omphalapion hookeri (PDF)
(previously Apion hookeri)

Seedhead feeding beetle (weevil)

1992

BWBS, ICH, IDF, MS, SBPS, SBS

BWBS, ICH, IDF, MS, SBS

Mass

Scentless chamomile
Tripleurospermum perforatum (previously Matricaria perforata)

Rhopalomyia tripleurospermi (PDF)

Gall forming midge

1999

BWBS, ICH, IDF, MS, SBS

BWBS, ICH, IDF, MS, SBS

Not available for general distribution

Scotch broom
Cytisus scoparius

Aceria genistae (PDF)

Gall mite

Adventive

None

CDF, CWH

No federal permit

Scotch broom
Cytisus scoparius

Agonopterix nervosa (PDF)

Foliar feeding moth

Adventive

None

CDF

No federal permit

Scotch broom
Cytisus scoparius

Bruchidius villosus (PDF)

Seed feeding beetle (weevil)

Adventive

ICH

CDF, CWH, ICH

No federal permit

Scotch broom
Cytisus scoparius

Exapion fuscirostre (PDF)

Seed feeding weevil

Adventive

ICH

CDF, CWH, ICH

No federal permit

Short-fringed knapweed
Centaurea nigrescens

Larinus obtusus (PDF)

Seed feeding beetle (weevil)

Imported for other Centaurea species

None

IDF

Mass

Short-fringed knapweed
Centaurea nigrescens

Urophora quadrifasciata (PDF)

Seed feeding fly

Imported for other Centaurea species

None

IDF

Mass

Spotted knapweed
Centaurea biebersteinii

Agapeta zoegana (PDF)
Field guide

Root feeding moth

1982

BG, CDF, CMA, CWH, ESSF, ICH, IDF, IMH, MS, PP, SBS

BG, CDF, CMA, CWH, ESSF, ICH, IDF, MS, PP, SBS

Mass

Spotted knapweed
Centaurea biebersteinii

Chaetorellia acrolophi (PDF)

Seed feeding fly

1991

BG, CWH, ICH, IDF, SBS

BG, ICH, IDF, MS, PP

Not available for general distribution

Spotted knapweed
Centaurea biebersteinii

Cyphocleonus achates (PDF)
Field guide

Root feeding beetle (weevil)

1987

BG, BWBS, CDF, CWH, ESSF, ICH, IDF, MS, PP, SBS

BG, CDF, CMA, CWH, ESSF, ICH, IDF, MS, PP, SBS

Limited

Spotted knapweed
Centaurea biebersteinii

Larinus minutus (PDF)
Field guide

Seed feeding beetle (weevil)

1991

BG, CDF, CWH, ESSF, ICH, IDF, MS, PP, SBS

BG, CDF, CWH, ICH, IDF, MS, PP, SBS

Mass

Spotted knapweed
Centaurea biebersteinii

Larinus obtusus (PDF)
Field guide

Seed feeding beetle (weevil)

1993

BG, CDF, CWH, ESSF, ICH, IDF, MS, PP, SBS

BG, CDF, CWH, ESSF, ICH, IDF, MS, PP, SBS

Mass

Spotted knapweed
Centaurea biebersteinii

Metzneria paucipunctella (PDF)

Seed feeding moth

1973

CDF, CWH, ICH, IDF, MS, SBS

BG, CDF, CWH, ICH, IDF, PP

Limited

Spotted knapweed
Centaurea biebersteinii

Pelochrista medullana (PDF)

Root feeding moth

1982

None

None

Not established

Spotted knapweed
Centaurea biebersteinii

Pterolonche inspersa (PDF)

Root feeding moth

1987

ICH

ICH

Passive distribution

Spotted knapweed
Centaurea biebersteinii

Puccinia jaceae (PDF)

Leaf and stem rust (fungus)

Adventive

None

None

No federal permit

Spotted knapweed
Centaurea biebersteinii
Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (PDF) Root, leaf and stem fungus Naturally occurring IDF IDF No federal permit

Spotted knapweed
Centaurea biebersteinii

Sphenoptera jugoslavica (PDF)

Root feeding beetle

1987

CDF, ICH, IDF

BG, CWH, ESSF, ICH, IDF, PP

Mass

Spotted knapweed
Centaurea biebersteinii

Terellia virens (PDF)

Seed feeding fly

1991

BG, ICH, IDF, PP

ICH

Not available for general distribution

Spotted knapweed
Centaurea biebersteinii

Urophora affinis (PDF)

Seed feeding fly

1970

CDF

BG, CDF, CWH, ICH, IDF, PP

Mass

Spotted knapweed
Centaurea biebersteinii

Urophora quadrifasciata (PDF)

Seed feeding fly

1972

None

BG, CDF, CWH, ICH, IDF, PP

Mass

St. John's wort
Hypericum perforatum

Agrilus hyperici (PDF)

Root feeding beetle

1955

CDF, ESSF, ICH, IDF

ESSF, ICH, IDF, PP

Not available for general distribution

St. John's wort
Hypericum perforatum

Aphis chloris (PDF)

Sap sucking aphid

1979

CWH, ESSF, ICH, IDF, PP

ESSF, ICH, IDF, PP

Not available for general distribution

St. John's wort
Hypericum perforatum

Aplocera plagiata (PDF)
(previously Anaitis plagiata)

Foliar feeding moth

1967

CDF, CWH, ESSF, ICH, IDF, MS, SBS

CDF, CWH, ICH, IDF, MS, PP

Limited

St. John's wort
Hypericum perforatum

Chrysolina hyperici (PDF)

Foliar feeding beetle

1951

CWH, ICH, IDF, MS, PP

ESSF, IDF, MS

Limited

St. John's wort
Hypericum perforatum

Chrysolina quadrigemina (PDF)
(previously C. gemellata)

Foliar feeding beetle

1952

CWH, ICH, IDF, MS

CDF, CWH, ESSF, IDF, MS

Mass

St. John's wort
Hypericum perforatum

Chrysolina varians (PDF)

Foliar feeding beetle

1957

ICH, PP

None

Not established

St. John's wort
Hypericum perforatum

Zeuxidiplosis giardi (PDF)

Gall forming midge

1955

ICH

None

Not established

Tansy ragwort
Senecio jacobaeae AKA Jacobaea vulgaris

Botanophila seneciella (PDF)
(previously B. jacobaeae, Hylemya seneciella, Pegohylemyia jacobaeae)

Seed feeding fly

1968

CWH

CDF, CWH, IDF

Passive distribution

Tansy ragwort
Senecio jacobaeae AKA Jacobaea vulgaris

Cochylis atricapitana (PDF)
Field guide
Appendix I

Root crown feeding moth

1990

CDF, CWH, IDF

CDF, CWH

Limited

Tansy ragwort
Senecio jacobaeae AKA Jacobaea vulgaris

Longitarsus flavicornis (PDF)
 

Root feeding flea beetle

1971

None

None

Not established

Tansy ragwort
Senecio jacobaeae AKA Jacobaea vulgaris

Longitarsus gracilis

Root feeding flea beetle

Adventive, 2005

IDF

IDF

No federal permit

Tansy ragwort
Senecio jacobaeae AKA Jacobaea vulgaris

Longitarsus jacobaeae (PDF)
(Italian strain)
Field guide
Appendix H

Root feeding flea beetle

1971

CDF, CWH, IDF

CDF, CWH

Mass

Tansy ragwort
Senecio jacobaeae AKA Jacobaea vulgaris

Longitarsus jacobaeae (PDF)
(Swiss strain)

Root feeding flea beetle

2011

IDF

None

Not available for general distribution

Tansy ragwort
Senecio jacobaeae AKA Jacobaea vulgaris

Tyria jacobaeae (PDF)
Field guide
Appendix G

Foliar feeding moth

1962

CDF, CWH, IDF

CDF, CWH, IDF

Mass

Whiplash hawkweed
Pilosella flagellaris

Aulacidea subterminalis (PDF)

Gall forming wasp

2011

ICH, IDF, SBS

ICH

Not available for general distribution

Yellow/ Common toadflax
Linaria vulgaris

Brachypterolus pulicarius (PDF)

Seed feeding beetle

Adventive

None

CWH, ICH, IDF, MS, PP, SBS

Mass

Yellow/ Common toadflax
Linaria vulgaris

Calophasia lunula (PDF)

Foliar feeding moth

1960s (on dalmatian)

BG, ICH, IDF, SBS

BG, ICH, IDF, PP

Limited

Yellow/ Common toadflax
Linaria vulgaris

Eteobalea intermediella (PDF)

Root feeding moth

1992

BG

None

Not established

Yellow/ Common toadflax
Linaria vulgaris

Eteobalea seratella (PDF)

Root feeding moth

1992

BG, IDF

None

Not established

Yellow/ Common toadflax
Linaria vulgaris

Mecinus janthinus (PDF)

Stem mining beetle (weevil)

Moved from Dalmatian to yellow toadflax

 

IDF

Not established

Yellow/ Common toadflax
Linaria vulgaris

Rhinusa antirrhini (PDF)
(yellow toadflax strain)
(previously Gymnetron antirrhini)

Seed feeding beetle (weevil)

Adventive

None

CWH, ICH, IDF, MS, PP, SBS

Passive distribution

Yellow/ Common toadflax
Linaria vulgaris

Rhinusa linariae (PDF)
(previously Gymnetron linariae)

Root feeding beetle (weevil)

1997

BG, ICH, IDF, MS

IDF

Not available for general distribution

Yellow/ Common toadflax
Linaria vulgaris

Rhinusa neta (PDF)
(previously Gymnetron neta, R. netum)

Seed feeding beetle (weevil)

Adventive

None

IDF, PP

No federal permit

Yellow/ Common toadflax
Linaria vulgaris

Rhinusa pilosa (PDF)

Stem galling weevil

2014

ICH, MS, PP, SBS

MS, PP, SBS

Not available for general distribution

* The monitoring/dispersal Biogeoclimatic Ecosystem Classification (BEC) zones listed as positive for biocontrol agent survival include those where monitoring has been performed and the agent has been found. This information does not necessarily preclude the possibility of the biocontrol agents establishing in additional BEC zones.
**The categories and their definitions for the 'collectability' of biocontrol agents in B.C. are as follows:

  • No federal permit: Host-specificity tests were not performed and a federal permit from the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) was not obtained to import these agents into Canada. These agents are typically adventive. For more information see the Adventive Biocontrol Agents document and the text included on the bioagent page to determine whether the agent may/should be collected and redistributed.
  • Not established: Repeated monitoring has revealed no sustained population of a released agent.
  • Not available for general distribution: Agents that have been released, but are still under study in development as treatment tools. Historically, these agents were described as ‘primary’ in B.C.
  • Limited: Agents that are regularly establishing and exist as treatment tools but for which collection numbers are low, typically in the hundreds for any given site in a season. Historically, these agents could be described as either ‘secondary’ or ‘tertiary’.
  • Mass: Agents that are present and exist as treatment tools and for which collectable numbers are typically plentiful, in the thousands, for any given site in a season. Historically, these agents could be described as either ‘secondary’ or ‘tertiary’.
  • Passive distribution: Agents that are difficult to collect because of their biological traits, or they exist in low densities and therefore are left to self-distribute on their target invasive plant. Note: agents that become wide-spread due to collection and redistribution efforts may thereafter be left to passively redistribute further. Historically, these agents would often be described as ‘tertiary’.